Portal:Society

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Introduction

A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences, a larger society often exhibits stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups.

Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology.

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In the news

20 February 2019 –
The U.S. Supreme Court, in a unanimous 9–0 decision, rules the 8th Amendment's prohibition on excessive fines applies to state and local governments, as well as the federal government. (The Washington Post)
19 February 2019 – 2019 Kaduna State massacre
Kaduna State governor Nasir el-Rufai reports the death toll from Friday's attack in Kajuru is now more than 130, most from the Fulani ethnic group. Nigerian authorities have not identified the gunmen's motive, but they do not believe the attack was related to the upcoming election. (Al Jazeera) (Eyewitness news)
15 February 2019 – Ethnic issues in Japan
The government of Japan approves a bill which officially acknowledges the Ainu as an indigenous people, following a non-binding resolution that was passed in 2008. (The Japan Times)
15 February 2019 –
Prime Minister of Spain Pedro Sánchez calls for a snap general election on 28 April and will dissolve the Cortes Generales on 5 May after failing to approve a government budget. (The New York Times) (CNN)
14 February 2019 – Special Counsel investigation
Former FBI Deputy Director Andrew McCabe confirms he ordered the probe on U.S. President Donald Trump for obstruction of justice, citing concerns that arose from the dismissal of James Comey. (CBS News)
11 February 2019 – Libyan Crisis (2011–present)
The Libyan Tobruk-based government has full control of the El Sharara oil field, the largest oilfield in Libya, after it was captured by the Libyan National Army. The oilfield, which was formerly under the control of Tripoli-based Government of National Accord, was taken over by local tribesmen in December 2018. (Reuters)

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Subtopics

Main articles: Social sciences and Society  See also Science and Scientific method

Social sciences – Anthropology • Archaeology • Cognitive science • Communication studies • Critical theory • Cultural studies • Development studies • Economics (Unsolved problems in economics) • Education • Geography • History • Linguistics  (Unsolved problems in linguistics) • Law • Political science • Psychology • Social policy • Sociology

Society – Ethnic groups • Group • Infrastructure • People

Community – Structure and agency • Socialization • Sense of community • Communitarianism • Social capital • Community development
Social development – Decadence • Social progress • Technological evolution
Sociocultural evolution: Accelerating change → Hunter-gatherer bands → Social rank → Tribes → Social stratification → Chiefdoms → Neolithic Revolution → Civilization → Agrarian society → Pre-industrial society → Agrarian villages → Towns → Cities → City-states → Nation-states → Industrial Revolution → (Modern) Industrial society → (Postmodern) Post-industrial society → Informational Revolution → Information society → Digital Revolution → Globalization → World government? → Space colonization? → Technological singularity?
Social institutions – Organization
Family – Daughter • Extended family • Father • Grandparent • Home • Human bonding • Mother • Nuclear family • Parent • Son
Religion – (see Religion and belief systems above)
Infrastructure
Public infrastructure – Highways • Streets • Roads • Bridges • Mass transit • Airports and Airways • Rail transport • Water supply and Water resources • Wastewater management • Solid-waste treatment and disposal • Electric power
Private infrastructure – Automobiles • Homes • Personal computers • Personal property • Real estate
Economy and Business – Finance • Management • Marketing • Franchising
Education – Academia • Academic misconduct • Homework • Learning • Pedagogy • School • Student • Study skills • Teacher
Civil society 
Government and Politics – Politics by country • International relations • Public affairs
Law – Criminal justice 
Social network – Communication • Journalism • Social capital

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