Glottolog

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Glottolog
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ProducerMax Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (Germany)
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Glottolog is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany.

Glottolog provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several respects: it attempts to only accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested");[1] it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them. The language names used in the bibliographic entries are identified by ISO 639-3 code or Glottolog's own code (Glottocode); apart from a single point-location on a map at its geographic centre, no ethnographic or demographic information is provided. External links are provided to ISO, Ethnologue and other online language databases.

Edition 2.2 was published online in 2013 and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License. Edition 2.4 was published in 2015 and edition 3.0 in 2017.


Language families

Glottolog is more conservative in its classification than most online databases in establishing membership of languages and groups within families but more liberal in considering unclassified languages to be isolates. Edition 2.4 lists 425 oral-language families, including isolates, and 75 sign-language families and isolates,[2] as follows.

Name Region[3] Languages
Atlantic-Congo Africa, North America 1432
Austronesian Africa, Eurasia, Oceania, South America 1276
Indo-European Africa, Australia, Eurasia, North America, Oceania, South America 585
Sino-Tibetan Eurasia 472
Afro-Asiatic Africa, Eurasia 372
Nuclear Trans New Guinea Oceania 315
Pama-Nyungan Australia, Oceania 240
Otomanguean North America 178
Austroasiatic Eurasia 164
Tai-Kadai Eurasia 96
Dravidian Eurasia 81
Arawakan North America, South America 76
Mande Africa 74
Tupian South America 71
Uto-Aztecan North America 68
Central Sudanic Africa 62
Nuclear Torricelli Oceania 55
Nilotic Africa 51
Algic North America 45
Athapaskan-Eyak-Tlingit North America 45
Quechuan South America 45
Cariban South America 44
Turkic Eurasia 44
Uralic Eurasia 44
Hmong-Mien Eurasia 39
Panoan South America 38
Sepik Oceania 36
Mayan North America 33
Nuclear-Macro-Je South America 31
Lower Sepik-Ramu Oceania 30
Nakh-Daghestanian Eurasia 30
Chibchan North America, South America 27
Tucanoan South America 26
Salishan North America 25
Timor-Alor-Pantar Oceania 22
Lakes Plain Oceania 20
Dogon Africa 19
Mixe-Zoque North America 19
Ta-Ne-Omotic Africa 19
Siouan North America 18
Morehead-Wasur Oceania 17
Mongolic Eurasia 16
Border Oceania 15
North Halmahera Oceania 15
Japonic Eurasia, Oceania 14
Khoe-Kwadi Africa 14
Angan Oceania 13
Ndu Oceania 13
Nubian Africa 13
Tor-Orya Oceania 13
Chapacuran South America 12
Eskimo-Aleut Eurasia, North America 12
Gunwinyguan Australia 12
Totonacan North America 12
Tungusic Eurasia 12
Iroquoian North America 11
Miwok-Costanoan North America 11
Western Daly Australia 11
Worrorran Australia 11
Geelvink Bay Oceania 10
Great Andamanese Eurasia, Oceania 10
Heiban Africa 10
Ijoid Africa 10
Maban Africa 10
Nyulnyulan Australia 10
Saharan Africa 10
Songhay Africa 10
Surmic Africa 10
Chocoan South America 9
Cochimi-Yuman North America 9
Dagan Oceania 9
Sko Oceania 9
South Bougainville Oceania 9
Kiowa-Tanoan North America 8
Kwerbic Oceania 8
Mailuan Oceania 8
Narrow Talodi Africa 8
Tuu Africa 8
Bosavi Oceania 7
Daju Africa 7
Huitotoan South America 7
Inland Gulf Oceania 7
Koiarian Oceania 7
Matacoan South America 7
Muskogean North America 7
Pomoan North America 7
Tacanan South America 7
Arawan South America 6
Baining Oceania 6
Barbacoan South America 6
Chumashan North America 6
East Strickland Oceania 6
Goilalan Oceania 6
Kadugli-Krongo Africa 6
Kartvelian Eurasia 6
Kiwaian Oceania 6
Kxa Africa 6
Left May Oceania 6
Marind Oceania 6
Nambiquaran South America 6
South Bird's Head Family Oceania 6
Wakashan North America 6
Yeniseian Eurasia 6
Zaparoan South America 6
Abkhaz-Adyge Eurasia 5
Caddoan North America 5
Chukotko-Kamchatkan Eurasia 5
Guahibo South America 5
Guaicuruan South America 5
Lengua-Mascoy South America 5
Mirndi Australia 5
Misumalpan North America 5
Nimboran Oceania 5
Nuclear Eleman Oceania 5
Pauwasi Oceania 5
Sahaptian North America 5
South Omotic Africa 5
Tirio Oceania 5
West Bird's Head Oceania 5
Xincan North America 5
Yanomam South America 5
Yareban Oceania 5
Yuat Oceania 5
Chinookan North America 4
Chonan South America 4
Eastern Jebel Africa 4
Eastern Trans-Fly Oceania 4
Huavean North America 4
Iwaidjan Proper Australia 4
Jivaroan South America 4
Kamakanan South America 4
Koman Africa 4
Maiduan North America 4
Mangarrayi-Maran Australia 4
Maningrida Australia 4
Mao Africa 4
Nadahup South America 4
North Bougainville Oceania 4
Sentani Oceania 4
Suki-Gogodala Oceania 4
Tama Africa 4
Tangkic Australia 4
Turama-Kikori Oceania 4
Walio Oceania 4
Yokutsan North America 4
Yukaghir Eurasia 4
Arafundi Oceania 3
Aymara South America 3
Bororoan South America 3
Cahuapanan South America 3
Charruan South America 3
Dizoid Africa 3
East Bird's Head Oceania 3
Giimbiyu Australia 3
Jarrakan Australia 3
Kalapuyan North America 3
Katla-Tima Africa 3
Kawesqar South America 3
Kayagar Oceania 3
Kolopom Oceania 3
Kuliak Africa 3
Kwalean Oceania 3
Mairasi Oceania 3
Mongol-Langam Oceania 3
Peba-Yagua South America 3
Puri South America 3
Saliban South America 3
Shastan North America 3
Tsimshian North America 3
West Bomberai Oceania 3
Yangmanic Australia 3
Zamucoan South America 3
Amto-Musan Oceania 2
Araucanian South America 2
Awin-Pa Oceania 2
Baibai-Fas Oceania 2
Bayono-Awbono Oceania 2
Boran South America 2
Bulaka River Oceania 2
Bunaban Australia 2
Chimakuan North America 2
Coosan North America 2
Doso-Turumsa Oceania 2
Eastern Daly Australia 2
East Kutubu Oceania 2
Etrusco-Rhaetian Eurasia 2
Furan Africa 2
Garrwan Australia 2
Haida North America 2
Harakmbut South America 2
Hatam-Mansim Oceania 2
Hibito-Cholon South America 2
Huarpean South America 2
Hurro-Urartian Eurasia 2
Inanwatan Oceania 2
Jarawa-Onge Eurasia 2
Jicaquean North America 2
Kakua-Nukak South America 2
Kariri South America 2
Katukinan South America 2
Kaure-Narau Oceania 2
Keresan North America 2
Konda-Yahadian Oceania 2
Koreanic Eurasia 2
Kresh-Aja Africa 2
Kwomtari Oceania 2
Lencan North America 2
Lepki-Murkim Oceania 2
Limilngan Australia 2
Manubaran Oceania 2
Marrku-Wurrugu Australia 2
Mombum Oceania 2
Monumbo Oceania 2
Namla-Tofanma Oceania 2
North-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 2
Northern Daly Australia 2
Nyimang Africa 2
Pahoturi Oceania 2
Palaihnihan North America 2
Piawi Oceania 2
Rashad Africa 2
Senagi Oceania 2
Somahai Oceania 2
South-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 2
Southern Daly Australia 2
Tarascan North America 2
Taulil-Butam Oceania 2
Teberan Oceania 2
Temein Africa 2
Tequistlatecan North America 2
Ticuna-Yuri South America 2
Uru-Chipaya South America 2
Western Tasmanian Australia 2
Wintuan North America 2
Yawa Oceania 2
Yuki-Wappo North America 2
Abinomn Oceania 1
Abun Oceania 1
Adai North America 1
Aewa South America 1
Aikanã South America 1
Ainu (Japan) Eurasia 1
Alsea North America 1
Andaqui South America 1
Andoque South America 1
Anem Oceania 1
Ap Ma Oceania 1
Arutani South America 1
Atacame South America 1
Atakapa North America 1
Banaro Oceania 1
Bangime Africa 1
Basque Eurasia 1
Beothuk North America 1
Berta Africa 1
Betoi South America 1
Bilua Oceania 1
Birri Africa 1
Bogaya Oceania 1
Burmeso Oceania 1
Burushaski Eurasia 1
Camsá South America 1
Candoshi-Shapra South America 1
Canichana South America 1
Cayubaba South America 1
Cayuse North America 1
Chimariko North America 1
Chiquitano South America 1
Chitimacha North America 1
Chono South America 1
Coahuilteco North America 1
Cofán South America 1
Comecrudo North America 1
Cotoname North America 1
Cuitlatec North America 1
Culli South America 1
Damal Oceania 1
Dem Oceania 1
Dibiyaso Oceania 1
Duna Oceania 1
Elamite Eurasia 1
Elseng Oceania 1
Esselen North America 1
Fasu Oceania 1
Fulniô South America 1
Gagadu Australia 1
Guachi South America 1
Guaicurian North America 1
Guamo South America 1
Guató South America 1
Gule Africa 1
Gumuz Africa 1
Guriaso Oceania 1
Hadza Africa 1
Hattic Eurasia 1
Hruso Eurasia 1
Iberian Eurasia 1
Irántxe South America 1
Itonama South America 1
Jalaa Africa 1
Jirajaran South America 1
Kaki Ae Oceania 1
Kamula Oceania 1
Kanoê South America 1
Kapori Oceania 1
Karankawa North America 1
Karok North America 1
Kehu Oceania 1
Kembra Oceania 1
Kenaboi Eurasia 1
Kibiri Oceania 1
Kimki Oceania 1
Klamath-Modoc North America 1
Kol (Papua New Guinea) Oceania 1
Kosadle Oceania 1
Kujarge Africa 1
Kunama Africa 1
Kungarakany Australia 1
Kunza South America 1
Kuot Oceania 1
Kusunda Eurasia 1
Kutenai North America 1
Kwaza South America 1
Laal Africa 1
Lafofa Africa 1
Laragia Australia 1
Lavukaleve Oceania 1
Leco South America 1
Lule South America 1
Máku South America 1
Maratino North America 1
Massep Oceania 1
Matanawí South America 1
Mato Grosso Arára South America 1
Mawes Oceania 1
Maybrat Oceania 1
Meroitic Africa 1
Mimi-Gaudefroy Africa 1
Minkin Australia 1
Mochica South America 1
Molale North America 1
Molof Oceania 1
Mor (Bomberai Peninsula) Oceania 1
Morori Oceania 1
Mosetén-Chimané South America 1
Movima South America 1
Mpur Oceania 1
Muniche South America 1
Mure South America 1
Nara Africa 1
Natchez North America 1
Nihali Eurasia 1
Nivkh Eurasia 1
Odiai Oceania 1
Omurano South America 1
Ongota Africa 1
Oti South America 1
Otomaco South America 1
Oyster Bay-Big River-Little Swanport Australia 1
Páez South America 1
Pankararú South America 1
Papi Oceania 1
Pawaia Oceania 1
Payagua South America 1
Pele-Ata Oceania 1
Pirahã South America 1
Puelche South America 1
Puinave South America 1
Pumé South America 1
Puquina South America 1
Purari Oceania 1
Pyu Oceania 1
Ramanos South America 1
Salinan North America 1
Sandawe Africa 1
Sapé South America 1
Sause Oceania 1
Savosavo Oceania 1
Sechuran South America 1
Seri North America 1
Shabo Africa 1
Shom Peng Eurasia 1
Siuslaw North America 1
Suarmin Oceania 1
Sulka Oceania 1
Sumerian Eurasia 1
Tabo Oceania 1
Taiap Oceania 1
Takelma North America 1
Tallán South America 1
Tambora Oceania 1
Tanahmerah Oceania 1
Taruma South America 1
Taushiro South America 1
Timote-Cuica South America 1
Timucua North America 1
Tinigua South America 1
Tiwi Australia 1
Tonkawa North America 1
Touo Oceania 1
Trumai South America 1
Tunica North America 1
Tuxá South America 1
Umbugarla Australia 1
Urarina South America 1
Usku Oceania 1
Vilela South America 1
Wadjiginy Australia 1
Wageman Australia 1
Waorani South America 1
Warao South America 1
Washo North America 1
Wiru Oceania 1
Xukurú South America 1
Yale Oceania 1
Yámana South America 1
Yana North America 1
Yele Oceania 1
Yerakai Oceania 1
Yetfa Oceania 1
Yuchi North America 1
Yuracaré South America 1
Yurumanguí South America 1
Yuwana South America 1
Zuni North America 1
LSFic (sign) 32
ASLic (sign) 20
BSLic (sign) 10
Arab Sign 6
Russian Sign 6
CSLic (sign) 5
DGSic (sign) 4
JSLic (sign) 3
Old Chiangmai-Bangkok-Haiphong Sign 3
Spanish Sign Language 3
Paraguay-Uruguay Sign 2
Providencia-Cayman Sign 2
Afghan Sign Language 1
Albanian Sign Language 1
Argentine Sign Language 1
Armenian Sign Language 1
Bamako Sign Language 1
Brazilian Sign Language 1
Burkina Faso Sign Language 1
Ecuadorian Sign Language 1
Estonian Sign Language 1
Guatemalan Sign Language 1
Hausa Sign Language 1
Indian Sign Language 1
Kenyan Sign Language 1
Lyons Sign Language 1
Maltese Sign Language 1
Mauritian Sign Language 1
Mofu-Gudur Sign Language 1
Mozambican Sign Language 1
Nepalese Sign Language 1
Pakistan Sign Language 1
Penang Sign Language 1
Persian Sign Language 1
Rennellese Sign Language 1
Salvadoran Sign Language 1
Saudi Arabian Sign Language 1
Sri Lankan Sign Language 1
Tanzanian Sign Language 1
Tijuana Sign Language 1
Turkish Sign Language 1
Venezuelan Sign Language 1
Yoruba Sign Language 1
Zambian Sign Language 1
Zimbabwe Sign Language 1
Adamorobe Sign Language 1
Alipur Sign Language 1
Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language 1
Ban Khor Sign Language 1
Bengkala Sign Language 1
Bribri Sign Language 1
Brunca Sign Language 1
Bura Sign Language 1
Chatino Sign Language 1
Enga Sign Language 1
Ghandruk Sign Language 1
Ghardaia Sign Language 1
Guinea-Bissau Sign Language 1
Inuit Sign Language 1
Jamaican Country Sign Language 1
Jhankot Sign Language 1
Jumla Sign Language 1
Kajana Sign Language 1
Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language 1
Mardin Sign Language 1
Martha's Vineyard Sign Language 1
Mbour Sign Language 1
Nanabin Sign Language 1
Nicaraguan Sign Language 1
Old Kentish Sign Language 1
Original Costa Rican Sign Language 1
Tebul Sign Language 1
Urubú-Kaapor Sign Language 1
Yolngu Sign Language 1
Yucatec Maya Sign Language 1

Creoles are classified with the language that supplied their basic lexicon.

In addition to languages classified into families, Glottolog recognizes 79 pidgins (including one sign pidgin), 24 mixed languages, 8 artificial languages, 9 speech registers (including 3 auxiliary sign systems), 118 attested but unclassifiable languages (including 2 sign languages), 61 unattested languages, and 270 spurious languages (such as retired ISO entries, and including 3 sign languages) kept for bookkeeping purposes.

References

  1. ^ See for example the bookkeeping section for ISO languages that Glottolog has deemed to be spurious distinctions.
    This discrimination does not apply to dialects, many of which have been inherited from MultiTree or other sources without verification.
  2. ^ Sign languages are listed together, including those grouped typologically as village sign languages, as are pidgins and unclassified languages, but without a claim that they are necessarily related.
  3. ^ Geographic regions include "Papunesia" (a portmanteau of Papua (New Guinea) and Austronesia), which refers to the islands of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania.

External links