|1943 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2696|
|Balinese saka calendar||1864–1865|
|British Regnal year||7 Geo. 6 – 8 Geo. 6|
|Chinese calendar||壬午年 (Water Horse)|
4639 or 4579
— to —
癸未年 (Water Goat)
4640 or 4580
|- Vikram Samvat||1999–2000|
|- Shaka Samvat||1864–1865|
|- Kali Yuga||5043–5044|
|Japanese calendar||Shōwa 18|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 32|
|Thai solar calendar||2486|
2069 or 1688 or 916
— to —
2070 or 1689 or 917
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1943.|
1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1943rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 943rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1940s decade.
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 Nobel Prizes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Below, events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.
- January 1 – WWII: The Soviet Union announces that 22 German divisions have been encircled at Stalingrad, with 175,000 killed and 137,650 captured.
- January 4
- January 11 – The United States and United Kingdom revise previously unequal treaty relationships with the Republic of China.
- January 11 – Italian-American anarchist Carlo Tresca is assassinated in New York City.
- January 13 – 36 people are executed and 200 arrested in anti-Nazi protests in Sofia.
- January 14 – 24 – WWII: Casablanca Conference: Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States; Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; and Generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud of the Free French forces meet secretly at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next stage of the war.
- January 15
- January 16 – Iraq declares war on the Axis powers.
- January 18
- January 21: WWII: Pan Am Flight 1104: Pan Am Martin M-130 flying boat crashes about 7 mi (11 km) southwest of Ukiah, California. Among the 10 passengers and nine crew aboard is Admiral Robert H. English (then COMSUBPAC).
- January 22
- January 23
- WWII: British forces capture Tripoli from the Italians.
- Duke Ellington plays at New York City's Carnegie Hall for the first time.
- American critic and commentator Alexander Woollcott suffers an eventually fatal heart attack during a regular broadcast of the CBS Radio round-table program People's Platform.
- January 27 – WWII: 50 bombers mount the first all American air raid against Germany: Wilhelmshaven is the target.
- January 29
- January 29 – 30 – WWII: Battle of Rennell Island – The Imperial Japanese Navy resists the United States Navy's attempt to interrupt the withdrawal of Japanese forces from Guadalcanal in the last major naval battle of the Guadalcanal Campaign.
- January 29 – 31 – WWII: Battle of Wau – Australian forces with United States support resist a Japanese advance in the New Guinea campaign.
- February 2 – WWII: In Russia, the Battle of Stalingrad comes to an end with the surrender of the German 6th Army.
- February 3 – WWII: The Four Chaplains of the U.S. Army are among those drowned when their ship, Dorchester, is struck by a German torpedo in the North Atlantic.
- February 5 – Lt. General Frank M. Andrews is selected to command the U.S. armies in Europe, while General Dwight D. Eisenhower is assigned command in North Africa. Andrews will serve only three months before dying in an airplane crash.
- February 6 – WWII: RCN corvette HMCS Louisburg is bombed and sunk off Oran, Algeria by Italian aircraft.
- February 7 – WWII:
- February 9 – WWII:
- Guadalcanal Campaign in the Solomon Islands ends with United States forces in command of Guadalcanal, the evacuation of Japanese forces in Operation Ke having been completed two days earlier.
- Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army begin with the Parośla I massacre within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine.
- February 10 – March 3 – Mohandas Gandhi (under arrest by forces of the British Raj in Pune as a member of the Quit India Movement) keeps a hunger strike to protest at his imprisonment.
- February 14 – WWII: Rostov-on-Don in Russia is liberated.
- February 14–17 – WWII: Battle of Sidi Bou Zid: In the Tunisia Campaign, German Panzer divisions commanded by Hans-Jürgen von Arnim are victorious over the United States Army.
- February 16 – WWII: The Soviet Union reconquers Kharkov, but is later driven out in the Third Battle of Kharkov.
- February 18
- February 19–24 – WWII: Battle of Kasserine Pass: German General Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps and other Axis forces launch an offensive against Allied defenses in Tunisia; it is the United States' first major battle defeat of the war. On February 22 an Anglo-American force halts the German advance near Thala, forcing the Germans to retreat, US bombers harass the retreating Panzers.
- February 20
- February 21 – WWII: North Atlantic convoy ON 166 is attacked by U-boats sinking eleven ships.
- February 22 –
- February 23–24 – Cavan Orphanage Fire: 35 girls and a cook from St Joseph's Orphanage, an industrial school at Cavan, Ireland, are killed in a fire in their dormitories. A subsequent inquiry absolves the Poor Clares of blame.
- February 27 – Smith Mine disaster: an explosion at Smith Mine #3 in Bearcreek, Montana, United States kills 74 coal miners.
- February 28 – Operation Gunnerside: 6 Norwegians led by Joachim Rønneberg successfully attack the heavy water plant at Vemork.
- March – Publication in New York of exiled French aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's self-illustrated children's novella The Little Prince, the all-time best-selling book originated in French.
- March–December – History of computing hardware: Construction of British prototype Mark I Colossus computer, the world's first totally electronic programmable computing device, to assist in cryptanalysis of German signals at Bletchley Park.
- March 1 – Heinz Guderian becomes the Inspector-General of the Armoured Troops for the German Army.
- March 1 –2 – WWII: Koriukivka massacre – Mass murder of 6,700 inhabitants of Koriukivka in the Ukraine by a German SS unit.
- March 2 – WWII: Battle of the Bismarck Sea – United States and Australian forces sink Japanese convoy ships, then strafe survivors in the water.
- March 3 – 173 people are killed in a crush while trying to enter an air-raid shelter at Bethnal Green, London.
- March 4 – The 15th Academy Awards ceremony is held in Los Angeles. Mrs. Miniver wins the Best Picture award.
- March 4–6 – WWII: Battle of Fardykambos – Greek partisans and armed civilians force the surrender of an Italian army battalion.
- March 5 – The Gloster Meteor, the first Allied jet fighter, makes its first flight, in England.
- March 9 – 10 – WWII: North Atlantic convoy SC 121 is attacked by U-boats sinking seven ships.
- March 9 – Şükrü Saracoğlu forms the new government of Turkey (14th government; Şükrü Saracoğlu had served twice as a prime minister).
- March 10 – Banco Bradesco is founded in Marília, São Paulo, Brazil.
- March 12 – WWII: Italian occupation of Greece: The Italian occupying forces abandon the town of Karditsa to the partisans. On the same day, an Italian motorized column razes the village of Tsaritsani, burning 360 of its 600 houses and shooting 40 civilians.
- March 13 – The Holocaust: Nazi German forces liquidate the Jews of the Kraków Ghetto in Occupied Poland.
- March 14 – WWII: British submarine HMS Thunderbolt is sunk off Sicily by an Italian corvette, the second time this vessel has been lost with all hands.
- March 15 – WWII:
- The Italian submarine Leonardo da Vinci sinks the Canadian Pacific liner RMS Empress of Canada off Sierra Leone. Nearly half of the 392 fatalities are Italian prisoners of war.
- German forces recapture Kharkov after four days of house-to-house fighting against Soviet troops, ending the month-long Third Battle of Kharkov.
- March 16 – 19 – WWII: 22 ships from Convoys HX 229/SC 122 and one U-boat are sunk in the largest North Atlantic U-boat "wolfpack" attack of the war.
- March 17 (Saint Patrick's Day) – Éamon de Valera, Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, makes the speech "The Ireland That We Dreamed Of", commonly called the "comely maidens" speech, in Dublin Castle.
- March 22 – WWII: Khatyn massacre – The entire population of Khatyn in Belarus is burnt alive by the German occupation forces.
- March 23 – The drugs Vicodin and Lortab are first produced in Germany.
- March 26 – WWII: Battle of the Komandorski Islands: In the Aleutian Islands, the battle begins when United States Navy forces intercept Japanese troops attempting to reinforce a garrison at Kiska.
- March 27 – WWII: British Royal Navy escort carrier HMS Dasher (D37) is destroyed by an accidental explosion in the Firth of Clyde, killing 379 of the crew of 528.
- March 28 – In Italy a ship full of weapons and ammunition explodes in the port of Naples, killing 600.
- March 31 – Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma! opens on Broadway, heralds a new era in "integrated" stage musicals, becomes an instantaneous stage classic, and goes on to be Broadway's longest-running musical up to that time (1948).
- April 3 – Shipwrecked steward Poon Lim is rescued by Brazilian fishermen after being adrift for 130 days.
- April 13 – WWII: Radio Berlin announces the discovery by Wehrmacht of mass graves of Poles killed by Soviets in the Katyn massacre.
- April 19
- April 21 – WWII:
- April 25 – Easter occurs on the latest possible date (last time 1886; next time 2038) in the Western Christian Church.
- April 26 – The Easter Riots in Uppsala, Sweden.
- April 27 – The U.S. Federal Writers' Project ceases operation.
- May 6 – WWII: Six U-boats are sunk after sinking 12 ships from Convoy ONS 5 in the last major North Atlantic U-boat "wolfpack" attack of the war.
- May 9 – 12 – Japanese troops carry out the Changjiao massacre in Changjiao, Hunan, China.
- May 11 – WWII: American troops invade Attu in the Aleutian Islands, in an attempt to expel occupying Japanese forces.
- May 12 – The Trident Conference begins in Washington, D.C., with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill taking part.
- May 13 – WWII: German Afrika Korps and Italian troops in North Africa surrender to Allied forces.
- May 14
- May 15 – The Comintern is dissolved in Moscow.
- May 16 – 17 – WWII: Operation Chastise (the 'Dambuster Raid') takes place: No. 617 Squadron RAF use bouncing bombs to breach German dams in the Ruhr Valley.
- May 16 – Holocaust: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising ends.
- May 17 – WWII:
- The United States Army contracts with the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School to develop the computer ENIAC.
- The Memphis Belle's crew becomes the first aircrew in the 8th Air Force to complete its 25-mission tour of duty. The aircraft and crew are the first to return to the U.S. intact for a War Bond drive.
- May 19 – Winston Churchill addresses a joint session of the United States Congress.
- May 23 – WWII: The battleship USS New Jersey (BB-62) is commissioned at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
- May 29 – Norman Rockwell's illustration of Rosie the Riveter first appears on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post.
- May 30 – The Holocaust: Dr. Josef Mengele begins his position as a medical officer in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.
- June (late) – The Holocaust: The last trainload of Jewish prisoners is moved from Bełżec extermination camp in Occupied Poland (for gassing at Sobibór) and for the remainder of the year the Nazis make efforts to obliterate the site.
- June 1 – BOAC Flight 777, a DC-3 with registration G-AGBB (formerly KLM PH-ALI, Ibis), on a scheduled passenger flight, is shot down over the Bay of Biscay by eight German Junkers Ju 88s; all 17 persons aboard perish, including the actor Leslie Howard. There is speculation that the downing is an attempt to kill the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, as the Germans may have had wrong information he was aboard.
- June 3 – The Zoot Suit Riots erupt between military personnel and Mexican American youths in East Los Angeles.
- June 4 – A military coup d'état in Argentina ousts Ramón Castillo.
- June 8 – WWII: Japanese battleship Mutsu is destroyed by an accidental magazine explosion in Hashirajima anchorage
- June 8–9 – WWII: Battle of Porta between the Royal Italian Army and the Greek People's Liberation Army.
- June 20 – 23 – The Detroit race riot of 1943 in the United States kills 34 people – 25 African Americans, nine whites – wounds hundreds more and damages and destroys property worth millions.
- June 21 – WWII: British saboteurs blow up the strategically significant railway viaduct at Asopos in Greece.
- June 22 – WWII: The U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division lands in North Africa, prior to training at Arzew, French Morocco.
- June 30 – United States Civilian Conservation Corps abolished.
- July 1 – United States Women's Army Corps (WAC) converted to full status.
- July 4 – 1943 Gibraltar B-24 crash: The aircraft carrying General Władysław Sikorski, Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile, crashes, killing him and fifteen others, leading to a lasting controversy over the circumstances.
- July 5 – WWII:
- July 6 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the Battle of Kula Gulf off Kolombangara.
- July 10
- (0245 GMT (4:45 am local time)) – WWII: Allied invasion of Sicily: The Allied invasion of Axis-controlled Europe begins with landings on the island of Sicily off mainland Italy by the Seventh United States Army and the British Eighth Army including the 1st Canadian Infantry Division.
- The Jedwabne pogrom takes place; at least 340 Polish Jews are marched to a local barn locked inside and subsequently burned to death.
- July 11 – WWII:
- July 12 – WWII: Main engagement of the Battle of Prokhorovka – The Wehrmacht and the Red Army fight to a draw in one of the largest tank battles in military history.
- July 19 – WWII: Rome is bombed by the Allies for the first time in the war.
- July 24 – WWII: Operation Gomorrha begins: British and Canadian aeroplanes bomb Hamburg by night; the American planes bomb the city by day. By the end of the operation in November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 42,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings.
- July 25 – Benito Mussolini, the Fascist Prime Minister of Italy since 1922, is arrested after the Grand Council of Fascism withdraws its support. "Il Duce" is replaced by General Pietro Badoglio.
- August 1 – Operation Tidal Wave: 177 B-24 Liberator bombers from the U.S. Army Air Force bomb oil refineries at Ploiești, Romania.
- August 2 – WWII: John F. Kennedy's PT boat PT-109 is run down by Japanese destroyer destroyer Amagiri.
- August 4 – WWII: The aircraft carrier USS Intrepid (CV-11) is launched at Newport News, Virginia.
- August 5 – WWII:
- August 6 – WWII: Battle of Vella Gulf: Americans defeat a Japanese convoy off Kolombangara, as the U.S. Army drives the Japanese out of Munda airfield on New Georgia.
- August 14 – WWII: Rome is declared an open city by the Italian government, with Italy offering to demilitarize the capital in return for an Allied agreement not to bomb the city further.
- August 14 – The Quadrant Conference begins in Quebec City; Canadian Prime Minister MacKenzie King meets with Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- August 17 – WWII:
- The Seventh U.S. Army under General George S. Patton meets the Eighth British Army under Field Marshal B. L. Montgomery in Messina, Sicily, completing the Allied invasion of Sicily.
- Operation Hydra: The British Royal Air Force sets out to bomb the Peenemünde Army Research Center to disrupt the German V-weapons programme.
- August 21 – Australian federal election, 1943: John Curtin's Labor Government defeats the Country/UAP Coalition led by former Prime Minister Arthur Fadden. Labor achieves its greatest ever electoral result - including winning every seat except one outside of the eastern states. Notably, this election marked the first time that a woman has been elected to both the Senate and the House of Representatives. Fadden would step down from the Opposition leadership, handing over to Robert Menzies, who would go on to dissolve the UAP and form the Liberal Party shortly after.
- August 23 – WWII: The Battle of Kursk ends with a strategic defeat for the German forces.
- August 24 – WWII: – Heinrich Himmler is named Reichminister of the Interior in Germany .
- August 26 – WWII: Louis, Lord Mountbatten named Supreme Allied Commander for Southeast Asia.
- August 28 – WWII: King Boris III of Bulgaria dies under suspicious circumstances; his 6-year-old son, Simeon II, ascends to the throne.
- August 29 – WWII: Occupation of Denmark – Germany dissolves the Danish government after it refuses to deal with a wave of strikes and disturbances to the satisfaction of the German authorities.
- September 3 – WWII: Allied invasion of Italy –
- September 5 – WWII: The 503rd Parachute Regiment under American General Douglas MacArthur lands and occupies Nadzab, just east of the port city of Lae in northeastern Papua New Guinea.
- September 7 – Gulf Hotel fire: A fire at the Gulf Hotel in Houston, Texas kills 55.
- September 8
- September 9 – Bertolt Brecht's play Life of Galileo (German: Leben des Galilei) receives its first theatrical production at the Schauspielhaus Zürich.
- September 12 – WWII: Gran Sasso raid – German paratroopers rescue Mussolini from imprisonment, in Unternehmen Eiche ("Operation Oak").
- September 16 – WWII: The Salerno Mutiny occurs when soldiers of the British Army's X Corps refuse postings to new units.
- September 17 – WWII: Villefranche-de-Rouergue Mutiny – A group of pro-Partisan soldiers led by Ferid Džanić and others within the 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian) training in Occupied France rise against Nazi German troops in the Division; the revolt is rapidly suppressed.
- September 21–26 – WWII: Massacre of the Acqui Division – German soldiers of the 1st Mountain Division (Wehrmacht) kill over 5,100 Italian military internees resisting disarmament on the Greek island of Cephalonia.
- September 22–October 2 – WWII: Landing at Scarlet Beach on the Huon Peninsula of New Guinea by Allied forces, the first time Australian troops have made an opposed amphibious landing since the Gallipoli Campaign of 1915.
- September 23 – WWII: The Italian Social Republic ("Republic of Salò") is founded in northern Italy as a puppet state of Nazi Germany.
- September 27 – WWII: Four days of Naples begins: a popular uprising drives German occupying forces from the city.
- October 1 – WWII: United States forces enter liberated Naples.
- October 3 – WWII: Nazi Wehrmacht forces commit the Lyngiades massacre in northwest Greece as an arbitrary reprisal.
- October 6 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the naval Battle of Vella Lavella.
- October 7 – WWII: The Naples post-office bombing kills 100.
- October 10
- WWII: Double Tenth incident (Japanese occupation of Singapore): The Japanese military police, the Kempeitai, arrest and torture more than 50 civilians and civilian internees on false suspicion of their involvement in a raid on Singapore Harbour during Operation Jaywick.
- The Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky is instituted in the Soviet Union.
- October 13 – WWII: The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany.
- October 14
- WWII: During the Second Raid on Schweinfurt, the United States Eighth Air Force suffers so many losses that it loses air supremacy over Germany for several months.
- The Holocaust: Uprising in Sobibór extermination camp; about half the inmates escape. Three days later, the camp is closed.
- José P. Laurel takes the oath of office as President of the Philippines (Second Philippine Republic).
- October 16 – The Holocaust: Raid of the Ghetto of Rome – Over a thousand Jews are rounded up in Rome by the Gestapo; only 16 will survive their deportation to Auschwitz concentration camp. The public silence of Pope Pius XII on the raid becomes a matter of historical controversy.
- October 17 – WWII:
- The last commerce raider, German auxiliary cruiser Michel, is sunk off Japan by United States submarine Tarpon.
- Completion of the Burma Railway between Bangkok, Thailand and Rangoon, Burma (modern-day Myanmar) (415 km (258 mi)) by the Empire of Japan to support its forces in the Burma campaign using the forced labour of Asian civilians and Allied Prisoners of war.
- October 18 – Chiang Kai-shek takes the oath of office as Chairman of the National Government of China.
- October 19 – WWII: Allied aircraft sink the German-controlled cargo ship MS Sinfra in the Mediterranean, killing over 2,000 people, mostly Italian military internees.
- October 21 – Lucie Aubrac and others in her French Resistance cell liberate Raymond Aubrac from Gestapo imprisonment.
- October 22 – WWII: The British Royal Air Force delivers a highly destructive airstrike on the German industrial and population center of Kassel; at least 10,000 are killed and 150,000 are made homeless. See Bombing of Kassel in World War II.
- October 24 – WWII: British Royal Navy destroyer HMS Eclipse (H08) is sunk by a mine in the Aegean Sea with the loss of 119 of the ship's company and 134 troops.
- October 28 – Alleged date of the Philadelphia Experiment, in which the destroyer escort USS Eldridge (DE-173) was supposed to be rendered invisible to human observers for a brief period.
- October 30
- WWII: Signing of Moscow Declarations: the Declaration of the Four Nations on general security, by the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union and Republic of China; and the Declarations on Italy, Austria and Atrocities by the first three governments.
- The Merrie Melodies animated cartoon Falling Hare, one of the only shorts with Bugs Bunny getting out-smarted, is released in the United States.
- November 1 – WWII: Operation Goodtime: United States Marines land on Bougainville Island in the Solomon Islands.
- November 2 – WWII:
- November 3 – Holocaust: As part of Operation Harvest Festival, the largest single day massacre of Jews in the entire war took place when over 43,000 Jews were shot-gunned to death by the SS.
- November 5 WWII: First Bombing of the Vatican: Four bombs are dropped on the neutral Vatican City; the aircraft responsible is never certainly identified.
- November 9 – Agreement for foundation of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration signed by 44 countries in the White House, Washington, D.C.
- November 10 – Execution of the Lübeck martyrs, four men of religion, for supposedly treasonable views.
- November 14 – Leonard Bernstein, substituting at the last minute for ailing principal conductor Bruno Walter, directs the New York Philharmonic in its regular Sunday afternoon broadcast concert over CBS Radio. The event receives front-page coverage in The New York Times the following day.
- November 15 – Porajmos: German SS leader Heinrich Himmler orders that Gypsies and "part-Gypsies" be put "on the same level as Jews and placed in Nazi concentration camps."
- November 16
- November 18 – WWII: Battle of Berlin – The British Royal Air Force opens its bombing campaign against Berlin with 440 planes causing only light damage and killing 131. The RAF loses 9 aircraft and 53 aviators.
- November 19 – The Holocaust: Inmates of Janowska concentration camp near Lwów (at this time in German-occupied Poland), stage a failed uprising, after which the SS liquidates the camp, resulting in at least 6,000 deaths.
- November 20 – WWII: Battle of Tarawa: United States Marines land on Tarawa and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands (Kiribati from 1979) and take heavy fire from Japanese shore guns.
- November 22 –26 – WWII: Cairo Conference ("Sextant") – President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill and Chairman of the National Government of China Chiang Kai-shek meet at Cairo in Egypt to discuss ways to defeat Japan in the Pacific War.
- November 22 – Lebanon gains independence on ending of the French Mandate.
- November 23 – The Deutsches Opernhaus on Bismarckstraße in the Berlin district of Charlottenburg is destroyed in an air raid (It is reopened in 1961 as the Deutsche Oper Berlin).
- November 25 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the naval Battle of Cape St. George between Buka and New Ireland.
- November 26 – WWII: British troopship HMT Rohna is sunk off the north African coast by a Luftwaffe Henschel Hs 293 radio controlled glide bomb killing 1015.
- November 28 – WWII: Tehran Conference: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy. On November 30, they establish an agreement concerning a planned June 1944 invasion of Europe codenamed Operation Overlord.
- November 29 – The second session of AVNOJ, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, is held in Jajce, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to determine the post-war ordering of the country.
- December 2 – WWII: Bari chemical warfare disaster: A surprise Luftwaffe air raid on Bari in Italy sinks 28 Allied ships in the harbor, including the American Liberty ship SS John Harvey, releasing its secret cargo of mustard gas bombs, inflating the number of casualties.
- December 3
- December 4
- WWII: In Yugoslavia, resistance leader Marshal Tito proclaims a provisional democratic Yugoslav government-in-exile.
- The Great Depression officially ends in the United States: With unemployment figures falling fast due to WWII-related employment, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes the Works Progress Administration.
- WWII: Bolivia declares war on Romania and Hungary.
- December 7 – Chiara Lubich starts the humanitarian Focolare Movement in Trento, Italy.
- December 13 – WWII: Massacre of Kalavryta: The occupying 117th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht) machine-gun all adult males from Kalavryta in Greece, subsequently burning the town.
- December 15 – WWII: American and Australian forces began the Battle of Arawe as a diversion before a larger landing at Cape Gloucester on New Britain in Papua New Guinea.
- December 20 – A military coup is staged in Bolivia.
- December 24 – WWII: U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes Supreme Allied Commander Europe. He establishes Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force in London.
- December 30 – Subhas Chandra Bose sets up a pro-Japanese Indian government at Port Blair, India.
- Bengal Famine.
- History of the cooperative movement: Father José María Arizmendiarrieta sets up a polytechnic school at Mondragón in the Spanish Basque Country (predecessor of the University of Mondragón) which inspires creation of the Mondragon Corporation.
- Arana Hall, a residential college of the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand, is founded.
- Jacques-Yves Cousteau co-invents, with Émile Gagnan, the first commercially successful open circuit type of scuba diving equipment, the Aqua-lung.
- Publication of Martin Noth's groundbreaking work of Old Testament scholarship Überlieferungsgeschichtliche Studien: Die sammelnden und bearbeitenden Geschichtswerke im Alten Testament.
|January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December|
- January 1
- January 2 – Barış Manço, Turkish singer and television personality (d. 1999)
- January 4 – Doris Kearns Goodwin, American writer
- January 6 – Terry Venables, English football manager
- January 7 – Sadako Sasaki, Japanese atomic bomb sickness victim (d. 1955)
- January 8 – Jimmy Elledge, American country musician (d. 2012)
- January 9
- January 10 – Jim Croce, American surburbia musician (d. 1973)
- January 11 – Jim Hightower, American radio host and author
- January 13 – Richard Moll, American television actor
- January 14
- January 15
- January 16 - Peter T. Snowe, American politician and businessman (d. 1973)
- January 17 – René Préval, 2nd Prime Minister of Haiti and 38th and 40th President of Haiti (d. 2017)
- January 18 – Kay Granger, American politician
- January 19
- January 20 – Mel Hague, English singer and author
- January 22
- January 24
- January 25
- January 26 – César Gutiérrez, Venezuelan Major League Baseball player (d. 2005)
- January 28 – John Beck, American actor
- January 29
- February 2 – Erkan Geniş, Turkish artist
- February 3
- February 4 – Alberto João Jardim, Portuguese politician
- February 5
- February 7 – Gareth Hunt, English actor (d. 2007)
- February 8 – Creed Bratton, American actor and musician
- February 9
- February 11 – Mohammad Rafiquzzaman, Bangladeshi lyricist
- February 12 – Wacław Kisielewski, Polish pianist (d. 1986)
- February 14 – Maceo Parker, American musician (James Brown, P-Funk)
- February 15 – Elke Heidenreich, German author, TV presenter and journalist
- February 18 – Graeme Garden, Scottish writer, comedian, and actor
- February 19
- February 20
- February 21 – David Geffen, American record executive and film producer
- February 22 – Horst Köhler, President of the Federal Republic of Germany
- February 23 – Fred Biletnikoff, American football player and coach
- February 24 – Hristo Prodanov, Bulgarian mountaineer
- February 25 – George Harrison, English singer and guitarist (The Beatles) (d. 2001)
- February 26
- February 27 – Morten Lauridsen, American composer
- February 28 – Donnie Iris, American rock singer and guitarist (The Jaggerz, Wild Cherry, Donnie Iris and the Cruisers)
- March 1
- March 2
- March 3 – Trond Mohn, Norwegian billionaire
- March 4
- March 5 – Lucio Battisti, Italian singer and songwriter (d. 1998)
- March 8 – Lynn Redgrave, English actress (d. 2010)
- March 9
- March 12 – Ratko Mladic, Serbia military leader
- March 13 – André Téchiné, French film director
- March 14
- March 15
- March 16
- March 18 – Kevin Dobson, American actor
- March 19
- March 20
- March 21
- March 22
- March 24 – Kate Webb, New Zealand-born Australian war correspondent (d. 2007)
- March 25 – Paul Michael Glaser, American actor
- March 26 – Bob Woodward, American journalist
- March 28
- March 29
- March 31
- April 2 – Caterina Bueno, Italian singer (d. 2007)
- April 3 – Hikaru Saeki, Japanese admiral, the first female star officer of the Japan Self-Defense Forces
- April 5
- April 8 – Miller Farr, American football player
- April 10
- April 11 – Harley Race, American professional wrestler
- April 16 – Petro Tyschtschenko, German businessman
- April 17 – Bobby Curtola, Canadian singer (d. 2016)
- April 19 – Claus Theo Gärtner, German actor
- April 20 – John Eliot Gardiner, English conductor
- April 21 – Napsiah Omar, Malaysian educator and politician (d. 2018)
- April 22
- April 23
- April 24 – Richard Sterban, American singer (The Oak Ridge Boys)
- April 25
- April 28 – John O. Creighton, American astronaut
- April 29 – Sir Ian Kershaw, English historian
- April 30
- May 1 – Vassal Gadoengin, Nauruan politician (d. 2004)
- May 5 – Michael Palin, English comedian and television presenter
- May 6 – Grange Calveley, British writer and artist
- May 7 – Orlando Ramírez, Chilean footballer (d. 2018)
- May 8 – Danny Whitten, American musician (d. 1972)
- May 10 – Richard Darman, American federal government official and businessman (d. 2008)
- May 13 – Kurt Trampedach, Danish artist (d. 2013)
- May 14
- May 17
- May 22 – Betty Williams, Northern Irish political activist, co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
- May 25 – Jessi Colter, American singer and composer
- May 26 – Erica Terpstra, Dutch swimmer, politician and president of the Dutch Olympic Committee
- May 27
- May 29 – Ion Ciubuc, Moldovan politician (d. 2018)
- May 30 – James Chaney, American civil rights worker (d. 1964)
- May 31
- June 1
- June 2 – Ilayaraaja, Indian composer
- June 3 – John Burgess, Australian game show host and actor
- June 4 – Joyce Meyer, Christian author and speaker
- June 6 – Richard Smalley, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2005)
- June 7
- June 8 – Colin Baker, British actor
- June 11 – Henry Hill, American Gangster
- June 13 – Malcolm McDowell, British actor
- June 14 – Jim Sensenbrenner, American politician
- June 15
- June 16 – Joan Van Ark, American actress
- June 17
- June 18 – Barry Evans, English actor (d. 1997)
- June 21 – Marika Green, French-Swedish actress
- June 22
- June 23
- June 26
- June 27 – Rico Petrocelli, American baseball player
- June 28
- June 29
- June 30
- July 1
- July 2
- July 3
- July 4
- July 5
- July 6
- July 7
- July 8
- July 9
- July 10
- July 11
- July 12
- July 14
- July 15 – Jocelyn Bell Burnell, British astrophysicist
- July 16
- July 17
- July 18 – Jerry Chambers, American basketball player
- July 19
- July 20
- July 21
- July 22
- July 23
- July 25 – Erika Steinbach, German politician
- July 26 – Mick Jagger, English rock singer
- July 27 – Mary Love, American soul and gospel singer (d. 2013)
- July 28 – Richard Wright, British musician (d. 2008)
- July 29 – Bob Brunning, British musician (d. 2011)
- July 30 – Giovanni Goria, Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1994)
- August 2 – Max Wright, American actor
- August 3 – Clarence Wijewardena, Sri Lankan musician (d. 1996)
- August 4 – Barbara Saß-Viehweger, German politician, lawyer and civil law notary
- August 4 – Bjørn Wirkola, Norwegian ski jumper
- August 5 – Nelson Briles, American baseball player (d. 2005)
- August 6 – Jim Hardin, former Baltimore Orioles, New York Yankees and Atlanta Braves pitcher (d. 1991)
- August 8 – Luc Rosenzweig, French journalist (d. 2018)
- August 9 – Ken Norton, American boxer and actor (d. 2013)
- August 10 – Frédéric Kyburz, Swiss judoka (d. 2018)
- August 11
- August 13 – Roberto Micheletti, President of Honduras
- August 17
- August 18 – Gianni Rivera, Italian footballer
- August 19 – Edwin Hawkins, American gospel musician, pianist (d. 2018)
- August 20 – Sylvester McCoy, British actor
- August 22 – Nahas Angula, Prime Minister of Namibia
- August 23
- August 27 – Tuesday Weld, American actress
- August 28
- August 29 – Arthur B. McDonald, Canadian astrophysicist, Nobel Prize laureate
- August 30
- August 31 – Leonid Ivashov, Russian general
- September 5 – Dulce Saguisag, Filipino politician and former DSWD Secretary (d. 2007)
- September 6
- September 7 – Lena Valaitis, Lithuanian-German Schlager singer
- September 9 – Art LaFleur, American actor
- September 10
- September 11
- September 13 – Mildred D. Taylor, American writer
- September 14 – Irwin Goodman, Finnish singer (d. 1991)
- September 16 – Oskar Lafontaine, German politician
- September 19 – Joe Morgan, American Hall of Fame baseball player
- September 22
- September 23
- September 28 – J. T. Walsh, American actor (d. 1998)
- September 29 – Lech Wałęsa, President of Poland, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
- September 30
- October 1 – Jean-Jacques Annaud, French film director
- October 2
- October 6 – Michael Durrell, American actor
- October 7 – Oliver North, American military officer, military historian, political commentator, author and television host
- October 8
- October 11 – John Nettles, English actor and writer
- October 14
- October 15 – Penny Marshall, American actress, director and producer
- October 16 – Paul Rose, Canadian terrorist
- October 18
- October 20 – Noreen Corcoran, American child actress and director (d. 2016)
- October 22 – Catherine Deneuve, French actress
- October 24 – Theodor Stolojan, 54th Prime Minister of Romania
- October 27 – Carmen Argenziano, American actor
- October 28 – Cornelia Froboess, German actress
- October 29 – Don Simpson, American film producer, screenwriter, and actor (d. 1996)
- October 31 – Paul Frampton, English physicist
- November 1 – Jacques Attali, French economist
- November 3 – Bert Jansch, Scottish folk musician (d. 2011)
- November 4
- November 5
- November 7
- November 8 – Martin Peters, British footballer
- November 11 – Doug Frost, Australian swimming coach
- November 12 – Wallace Shawn, American actor
- November 13
- November 14
- November 17 – Lauren Hutton, American actress and model
- November 19 – Aurelio Monteagudo, Cuban Major League Baseball player (d. 1990)
- November 20
- November 21 – Larry Mahan, American rodeo cowboy
- November 22
- November 23 – Denis Sassou Nguesso, President of the Republic of the Congo
- November 24
- November 25 – Dante Caputo, Argentine diplomat and politician (d. 2018)
- November 26 – Marilynne Robinson, American writer
- November 28 – Randy Newman, American musician
- November 30 – Terrence Malick, American film director
- December 2
- December 5
- December 8
- December 11 – John Kerry, American politician, longtime Massachusetts Senator (1985–2013), 2004 Democratic nominee for president, and U.S. Secretary of State
- December 12
- December 13 – Ferguson Jenkins, Canadian baseball player
- December 13 – David W. Huff, American rock singer and guitarist of David and the Giants
- December 15 – Lucien den Arend, Dutch sculptor
- December 17
- December 18 – Keith Richards, English rock guitarist and songwriter
- December 19
- December 20 – Jacqueline Pearce, English screen actress (d. 2018)
- December 21 – Jack Nance, American actor (d. 1996)
- December 22 – Paul Wolfowitz, American political scientist
- December 23
- December 24
- December 25 – Hanna Schygulla, German actress
- December 27 – Sam Hinds, 3-Time Prime Minister of Guyana
- December 28
- December 31
- Tang Da Wu, Singaporean artist
- James Goldstein, LA businessman and NBA basketball aficionado
- Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, 2-Time Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates (d. 2006)
- Alfredo Rostgaard, Cuban visual artist (d. 2004)
- January 2
- January 3 – Bid McPhee, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1859)
- January 4
- January 5 – George Washington Carver, American botanist (b. c.1864)
- January 7 – Nikola Tesla, Serbian-born American electrical engineer and inventor (b. 1856)
- January 8 – Richard Hillary, British Battle of Britain Spitfire, pilot, author (b. 1919)
- January 10 – Lewis Hall, American soldier (b. 1895)
- January 11 – Agustín Pedro Justo, Argentinian military officer, diplomat and politician, 23rd President of Argentina (b. 1876)
- January 12 – Jan Campert, Dutch journalist and writer (Neuengamme concentration camp; b. 1902)
- January 13
- January 15 – Eric Knight, American author (b. 1897)
- January 17 – Taj al-Din al-Hasani, Syrian politician, 6th Prime Minister of Syria and 6th President of Syria (b. 1885)
- January 19 – William Pettigrew, British Christian missionary (b. 1869)
- January 20
- January 21
- January 22 – Gyula Peidl, 23rd Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1873)
- January 23 – Alexander Woollcott, American critic (b. 1887)
- January 26 – Nikolai Vavilov, Russian and Soviet botanist and geneticist (b. 1887)
- January 29
- Henriette Caillaux, murderer, French socialite and wife of former French prime minister (b. 1874)
- Vladimir Kokovtsov, 4th Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (b. 1853)
- February 1 – Foy Draper, American Olympic athlete (killed in action) (b. 1911)
- February 2 – Alfred Cavendish, British general (b. 1859)
- February 4
- February 5
- February 9
- February 10
- February 11 – Bess Houdini, American wife of Harry Houdini (b. 1876)
- February 14 – David Hilbert, German mathematician (b. 1862)
- February 15 – Charles Bennett, American actor (b. 1889)
- February 16 – Paul Ranous Greever, American politician (b. 1891)
- February 19 – Jan Piekałkiewicz, Polish economist, statistician and politician (b. 1892)
- February 20
- February 22
- Tamara Drasin, Russian-born American singer and actress (b. 1905)
- Christoph Probst, German White Rose resistance member (executed) (b. 1919)
- Ben Robertson, American novelist, journalist, and war correspondent (b. 1903)
- Hans Scholl, German White Rose resistance member (executed) (b. 1918)
- Sophie Scholl, German White Rose resistance member (executed) (b. 1921)
- February 23 – Edward Heaton-Ellis, British army officer (b. 1868)
- February 23 - Baron, Karl von Möller, German Writer and Politician (b. 1886)
- February 26 – Theodor Eicke, German Nazi official (killed in action) (b. 1892)
- February 27 – Maria Josefa Karolina Brader, Swiss Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1860)
- March 2 – Gisela Januszewska, Austrian physician (b. 1867)
- March 3 – Rafael López Nussa, Puerto Rican physician (b. 1885)
- March 6 – Jimmy Collins, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1870)
- March 8
- March 9 – Otto Freundlich, German painter and sculptor (b. 1878)
- March 10 – Tully Marshall, American actor (b. 1864)
- March 12
- March 13 – Jaap Nunes Vaz, Dutch journalist, writer and editor (b. 1906)
- March 14 – Mervyn Herbert, Viscount Clive, British peer and army officer (b. 1904)
- March 19 – Frank Nitti, Italian-born American gangster (suicide) (b. 1886)
- March 20
- March 22 -- Hans Woellke, German Olympic athlete (b. 1911)
- March 27 – George Monckton-Arundell, 8th Viscount Galway, British politician, 5th Governor-General of New Zealand (b. 1882)
- March 28
- March 30 – Maria Restituta Kafka, German Roman Catholic religious sister and blessed (b. 1894)
- March 31 – Pavel Milyukov, Russian politician, founder and leader of the Constitutional Democratic Party (b. 1859)
- April 1 – Vahida Maglajlić, Yugoslav partisan and national hero (killed in combat) (b. 1907)
- April 3 – Conrad Veidt, German actor (b. 1893)
- April 5 – William George Howard Gritten, British barrister, writer and conservative politician (b. 1870)
- April 7
- April 8
- April 9 – Philip Slier, Dutch Jewish typesetter (in Sobibór extermination camp) (b. 1923)
- April 11 – Kim Myeong-sik, Korean independence activist (b. 1890)
- April 13 – Oskar Schlemmer, German painter, sculptor, designer and choreographer (b. 1888)
- April 16 – Carlos Arniches, Spanish playwright (b. 1866)
- April 18 – Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese admiral (b. 1884)
- April 21 – Rihard Jakopič, Yugoslav painter (b. 1869)
- April 24
- April 30 – Beatrice Webb, British sociologist, economist, historian and social reformer (b. 1858)
- May 1 – Johan Oscar Smith, Norwegian Christian leader, founder of Brunstad Christian Church (b. 1871)
- May 3 – Frank Maxwell Andrews, American general (plane crash) (b. 1884)
- May 4
- May 5
- May 7 – Fethi Okyar, Turkish diplomat and politician, 2nd Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1880)
- May 8 – Miroslav Šalom Freiberger, Yugoslav rabbi, writer and spiritual leader (b. 1903)
- May 14
- May 15 – Horst Hannig, German Luftwaffe fighter ace army officer (b. 1921)
- May 17
- May 19 – Kristjan Raud, Soviet painter and drawer (b. 1865)
- May 20 – John Stone Stone, American physicist and inventor (b. 1869)
- May 22 – Helen Taft, First Lady of the United States (b. 1861)
- May 24 – Johannes Orasmaa, Soviet army general (b. 1890)
- May 25 – Rida Pasha al-Rikabi, 1st Prime Minister of Syria and 2-time Prime Minister of Jordan (b. 1864)
- May 26 – Edsel Ford, American businessman, president of Ford Motor Company (b. 1893)
- May 27 – Gordon Coates, 21st Prime Minister of New Zealand (b. 1878)
- May 29 – Yasuyo Yamasaki, Imperial Japanese Army officer (killed in action) (b. 1891)
- May 31
- June 1
- June 2 – Nile Kinnick, American athlete and Heisman Trophy winner (b. 1918)
- June 3 – Osgood Hanbury, British pilot (b. 1917)
- June 4
- June 10 – Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco (b. 1878)
- June 11 – Heisuke Abe, Japanese general (b. 1886)
- June 12 – Hans Junkermann, German actor (b. 1872)
- June 26 – Karl Landsteiner, Austrian biologist and physician (b. 1868)
- June 28 – Pietro Porcelli, Italian sculptor (b. 1872)
- June 30 – Kristian Kristiansen, Norwegian explorer (b. 1865)
- July 4
- July 5
- July 6
- July 8
- July 11 – Eugen Lovinescu, Romanian critic, academic and novelist (b. 1881)
- July 12
- July 13
- July 14 – Mariya Borovichenko, Soviet medical officer (b. 1925)
- July 19
- July 20 – Maria Gay, Spanish opera singer (b. 1879)
- July 21
- July 26 – Luis Barros Borgoño, Chilean politician (b. 1858)
- July 28 – Charles Granval, French actor (b. 1882)
- July 29 – William Ewart Hart, Australian aviator and dentist (b. 1885)
- July 31
- August 1 – Martyrs of Nowogródek, Polish nuns, martyrs and blessed (b. Polish nationality)
- August 5
- August 9
- August 12 – Bobby Peel, English cricketer (b. 1857)
- August 14 – Joe Kelley, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1871)
- August 18 – Hans Jeschonnek, German general (suicide) (b. 1899)
- August 21 – Henrik Pontoppidan, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1857)
- August 22 – Virgilio Dávila, Puerto Rican poet, educator, businessman and politician (b. 1869)
- August 24
- August 26 – Ted Ray, British golfer (b. 1877)
- August 27 – William de Burgh, British philosopher (b. 1866)
- August 28 – King Boris III of Bulgaria (b. 1894)
- August 29 – Baba Nand Singh ji, Sikhism religious leader (b. 1870)
- August 31 – Gustav Bachmann, German naval officer and admiral (b. 1860)
- September 1 – Charles Atangana, Cameroonian chief (b. 1880)
- September 2 – Marsden Hartley, American Modernist artist (b. 1877)
- September 6 – Reginald McKenna, British Chancellor of the Exchequer 1915–1916 (b. 1863)
- September 7
- September 8 – Julius Fučík, Czech resistance fighter (executed) (b. 1903)
- September 9
- September 13
- September 17 – Mieczysław Witold Gutkowski, Polish lawyer (b. 1893)
- September 19 – Germaine Cernay, French mezzo-soprano (b. 1900)
- September 23
- September 28 – Sam Ruben, American chemist (b. 1913)
- September 29 – Mariano Goybet, French army general (b. 1861)
- September 30 – Adolf Paul, Swedish novelist and playwright (b. 1863)
- October 2
- October 4 – Irena Iłłakowicz, Polish general (b. 1906)
- October 5 – Leon Roppolo, American musician (b. 1902)
- October 6 – Ignaz Trebitsch-Lincoln, Hungarian adventurer (b. 1879)
- October 7 – Prince Christopher of Hesse (b. 1901)
- October 8 – Wilhelm Hegeler, German novelist (b. 1870)
- October 9 – Pieter Zeeman, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1865)
- October 12 – Max Wertheimer, Austro-Hungarian psychologist (b. 1880)
- October 14
- October 15 – William Penhallow Henderson, American painter, architect and furniture designer (b. 1877)
- October 18 – Margaret Bartholomew, American army officer (b. 1903)
- October 19 – Camille Claudel, French sculptor (b. 1864)
- October 21 – Dudley Pound, British admiral (b. 1877)
- October 22 – William Reginald Hall, British admiral (b. 1870)
- October 23
- October 24 – Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau, Canadian poet and lawyer (b. 1912)
- October 30 – Max Reinhardt, Austrian director (b. 1873)
- November 5
- November 7 – Dwight Frye, American actor (b. 1899)
- November 9 – Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich of Russia (b. 1877)
- November 10 – Blessed Lubeck martyrs, German Roman Catholic priests:
- November 13 – Maurice Denis, French painter (b. 1870)
- November 14 – Gurie Grosu, Romanian Orthodox priest and metropolitan (b. 1877)
- November 19 – Baruch Lopes Leão de Laguna, Dutch painter (b. 1864)
- November 22
- November 23
- November 24
- November 25 – Renato Cialente, Italian actor (b. 1897)
- November 26
- November 28 – Aleksander Hellat, Soviet politician (b. 1881)
- November 29 – Zsolt Harsányi, Hungarian author, dramatist, translator and writer (b. 1887)
- December 1
- December 2 – Nordahl Grieg, Norwegian poet, novelist, journalist and activist (b. 1902)
- December 6 – G. O. Smith, English sportsman (b. 1872)
- December 7 – Hamilton Lamb, Australian politician and soldier (b. 1900)
- December 8 – Donald Mackintosh, British clergyman and Roman Catholic bishop and reverend (b. 1876)
- December 9
- December 10 – Charles Belcher, American actor (b. 1872)
- December 13 – Erich Garske, German political activist (b. 1907)
- December 14 – John Harvey Kellogg, American doctor (b. 1852)
- December 15 – Fats Waller, American jazz pianist (b. 1904)
- December 18 – Hector Gray, British Royal Air Force officer (b. 1911)
- December 20 – Edward L. Beach Sr., American naval officer and author (b. 1867)
- December 22 – Beatrix Potter, British children's author and illustrator (b. 1866)
- December 25 – William Irving, German-born American film actor (b. 1893)
- December 26 – Erich Bey, German admiral (b. 1898)
- December 27
- December 30 – Hobart Bosworth, American film actor, director, writer, and producer (b. 1867)
- Physics – Otto Stern
- Chemistry – George de Hevesy
- Physiology or Medicine – Carl Peter Henrik Dam, Edward Adelbert Doisy
- Literature – not awarded
- Peace – not awarded
- Waters, John M. Jr., CAPT USCG (December 1966). "Stay Tough". United States Naval Institute Proceedings.
- "The Eruption of Parícutin (1943–1952)". How Volcanoes Work. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Parícutin, Mexico". Volcano World. Archived from the original on February 6, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- "Parícutin: The Birth of a Volcano". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- Rohwer, J.; Hummelchen, G. (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945. Naval Institute Press. p. 194. ISBN 1-55750-105-X.
- Copeland, B. Jack, ed. (2006). Colossus: the Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-284055-4.
- Caidin, Martin. Ragged, Rugged Warriors (Bantam, 1978>)[page needed]
- Rohwer, J.; Hummelchen, G. (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945. Naval Institute Press. p. 196. ISBN 1-55750-105-X.
- "HMS Thunderbolt (N 25)". uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-10-21.
- Warren, C. E. T.; Benson, James (1958). "The Admiralty regrets ...": the story of His Majesty's submarine Thetis and Thunderbolt. London: Harrap.
- How LSD Originated, Albert Hofmann.
- Bombing of Aberdeen, news.stv.tv; accessed 6 December 2014.
- Arad, Yitzhak (1999). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 371. ISBN 0-253-21305-3.
- "Belzec". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 2012-01-07. Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- "Los Angeles Zoot Suit Riots". Los Angeles Almanac.
- Cosgrove, Ben (2014-06-18). "Hatred on the Home Front: The Detroit Race Riots During WWII". Time Life. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
- "Badolgio Declares Rome An 'Open City', Pittsburgh Press, August 15, 1943, p. 1
- Muggenthaler, August Karl (1977). German Raiders of WWII. Prentice-Hall. p. 276. ISBN 0-13-354027-8.
- "HMS Eclipse, destroyer". naval-history.net. Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- Tomblin, Barbara (2004). With Utmost Spirit: Allied Naval Operations in the Mediterranean, 1942–1945. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 308–310.
- Jackson, Carlton (1997). Forgotten Tragedy: The Sinking of HMT Rohna. Naval Institute Press.
- Infield, Glenn B. (1967). Disaster at Bari.
- "December 3rd, 1943". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- "Year by Year 1943" – History Channel International.
- [Schriften der Königsberger Gelehrten-Gesellschaft: Geisteswissenschaftliche Klasse; 18,2 (trans: "Writings of the Königsberg Scholarly Society: Spiritual Scientific Class No. 18.2")]: (Halle ["Halle an der Saale"]: M. Niemeyer, 1943.)