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|<<||Selected anniversaries for October||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2018 day arrangement
- 1868 – St Pancras railway station (pictured) in London, which is now the terminus of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, opened to the public.
- 1890 – At the encouragement of preservationist John Muir and writer Robert Underwood Johnson, the United States Congress established Yosemite National Park.
- 1918 – First World War: British and Arab troops captured Damascus from the Ottoman Empire.
- 1949 – Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
- 1998 – Europol was founded, when the Europol Convention signed by all European Union member states came into force.
- 1263 – Scottish–Norwegian War: The armies of Norway and Scotland fought the Battle of Largs, an inconclusive engagement near the present-day town of Largs in North Ayrshire, Scotland.
- 1835 – Mexican dragoons dispatched to disarm settlers at Gonzales, Mexican Texas, encountered stiff resistance from a Texian militia in the Battle of Gonzales, the first armed engagement of the Texas Revolution.
- 1928 – Spanish priest Josemaría Escrivá founded Opus Dei (logo pictured), a worldwide organization of the Catholic Church.
- 1941 – World War II: Military forces of Nazi Germany began Operation Typhoon, an all-out offensive which began the three-month-long Battle of Moscow.
- 1990 – A hijacked airliner collided with two other planes while attempting to land at Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport in China, resulting in a total of 128 deaths.
- 2333 BC – According to Korean legend, Dangun established Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom.
- 1951 – The First Battle of Maryang-san, widely regarded as one of the Australian Army's greatest accomplishments during the Korean War, began.
- 1962 – Mercury-Atlas 8, the fifth United States manned space mission, was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.
- 1991 – Nadine Gordimer (pictured) became the first South African to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
- 2008 – The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, establishing the Troubled Asset Relief Program, commonly referred to as a bailout of the U.S. financial system, was enacted.
- 1876 – Texas A&M University opened as the first public institution of higher education in the U.S. state of Texas.
- 1918 – An ammunition plant in Sayreville, New Jersey, U.S., exploded, killing around 100 people and destroying more than 300 buildings.
- 1957 – The Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 1 (replica pictured), the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth, was launched by an R-7 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
- 1958 – The current Constitution of France was signed into law, establishing the French Fifth Republic.
- 2010 – The dam holding a waste reservoir in western Hungary collapsed, freeing 1 million m3 (1.3 million yd3) of red mud, which flooded nearby communities and killed ten people.
- 1789 – French Revolution: Upset about the high price and scarcity of bread, thousands of Parisian women and their various allies marched (pictured) on the royal palace at Versailles.
- 1869 – During construction of the Hennepin Island tunnel in St. Anthony, Minnesota (now Minneapolis), U.S., the Mississippi River broke through the tunnel's limestone ceiling, nearly destroying Saint Anthony Falls.
- 1930 – The British airship R101 crashed in France en route to India on its maiden overseas flight, killing 48 passengers and crew.
- 1970 – Members of the Front de Libération du Québec kidnapped British diplomat James Cross, sparking the October Crisis in Montreal.
- 1986 – Eugene Hasenfus's plane was shot down by Nicaraguan forces while carrying weapons to the Contra rebels on behalf of the U.S. government; he was subsequently captured, leading to an international controversy.
- 618 – Wang Shichong's army defeated that of Li Mi, allowing Wang to consolidate his power and soon depose China's Sui dynasty.
- 1762 – Seven Years' War: The Battle of Manila concluded with a British victory over Spain, leading to a short British occupation of Manila.
- 1934 – Catalonia's autonomous government declared a general strike, an armed insurgency, and the establishment of the Catalan State in reaction to the inclusion of conservatives in the republican regime of Spain.
- 1998 – University of Wyoming gay student Matthew Shepard was attacked and fatally wounded near Laramie, Wyoming, U.S., dying six days later.
- 2010 – Instagram (current logo pictured) released the initial version of its mobile application for iOS devices.
- 1513 – War of the League of Cambrai: A Venetian army under Bartolomeo d'Alviano was decisively defeated by the Spanish army commanded by Ramón de Cardona and Fernando d'Ávalos.
- 1800 – The French privateer Robert Surcouf led a 150-man crew to capture the 40-gun, 437-man East Indiaman Kent.
- 1868 – Cornell University (co-founder Ezra Cornell pictured) in Ithaca, New York, was established, with an initial enrollment of 412 men the next day.
- 1988 – Near Point Barrow in Alaska, an Iñupiat hunter discovered three gray whales trapped in pack ice, which resulted in an international effort to free them.
- 2008 – 2008 TC3 exploded above the Nubian Desert in Sudan, the first time that an asteroid impact had been predicted prior to its entry into the atmosphere as a meteor.
- 1897 – Composer Gustav Mahler (pictured) was appointed the director of the Vienna Court Opera.
- 1918 – World War I: After his platoon suffered heavy casualties during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in France's Forest of Argonne, American Corporal Alvin York led the 7 remaining men on an attack against a German machine gun nest, killing at least 25 German soldiers and capturing 132 others.
- 1952 – Three trains collided at Harrow & Wealdstone station in London, killing 112 people and injuring 340.
- 1962 – The German news magazine Der Spiegel revealed the unpreparedness of the West German armed forces against the communist threat from the east, and was accused of treason shortly afterwards.
- 1969 – Demonstrations organized by the Weather Underground known as the Days of Rage began in Chicago.
- 1708 – Great Northern War: Russia defeated Sweden at the Battle of Lesnaya on the Russian–Polish border in what is now Belarus.
- 1888 – The Washington Monument (pictured) in Washington, D.C., at the time the world's tallest building, officially opened to the general public.
- 1914 – World War I: The civilian authorities of Antwerp surrendered, allowing the German army to capture the city.
- 1942 – World War II: American forces defeated the Japanese at the Third Battle of the Matanikau in Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, reversing the Japanese victory a couple of weeks earlier.
- 2016 – Militants attacked a border police post in Myanmar, killing nine people and triggering a period of intense persecution of the Rohingya Muslim minority.
- 1780 – One of the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes on record struck the Caribbean Sea, killing at least 20,000 people over the next seven days.
- 1846 – English astronomer William Lassell discovered Triton (pictured), the largest moon of the planet Neptune.
- 1911 – The Xinhai Revolution began with the Wuchang Uprising, marking the beginning of the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China.
- 1943 – World War II: The Kenpeitai, the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army, arrested and tortured fifty-seven civilians and civilian internees on suspicion of their involvement in a raid on Singapore Harbour during Operation Jaywick.
- 1963 – The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibits all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground, came into effect.
- 1142 – The Treaty of Shaoxing was ratified, ending the Jin–Song Wars, although sporadic fighting continued until 1234.
- 1311 – The peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England published the Ordinances of 1311 to restrict King Edward II's powers.
- 1840 – Bashir Shihab II (pictured) surrendered to the Ottoman Empire and was removed as Emir of Mount Lebanon after an imperial decree by Sultan Abdülmecid I.
- 1950 – A field-sequential color system developed by Hungarian-American engineer Peter Goldmark became the first color television system to be adopted for commercial use, only for it to be abandoned a year later.
- 1987 – Sri Lankan Civil War: The Indian Peace Keeping Force began Operation Pawan to take control of Jaffna from the Tamil Tigers and enforce their disarmament as a part of the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord.
- 1398 – The Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen signed the Treaty of Salynas, the third attempt to cede Samogitia to the Knights.
- 1799 – Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse (pictured) became the first woman to make a parachute descent, falling 900 m (3,000 ft) in a hot-air balloon gondola.
- 1892 – The Pledge of Allegiance of the United States was first used in public schools to coincide with the opening of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
- 1960 – Japan Socialist Party leader Inejiro Asanuma was assassinated during a live television recording by a man using a samurai sword.
- 1984 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated a bomb at the Grand Hotel in Brighton, England, in a failed attempt to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and most of her cabinet.
- 1307 – Agents of King Philip IV of France launched a dawn raid, arresting many members of the Knights Templar, and subsequently torturing them into "admitting" heresy.
- 1885 – The Georgia Institute of Technology (pictured) was established in Atlanta as part of Reconstruction plans to build an industrial economy in the Southern United States.
- 1917 – At least 30,000 people in the Cova da Iria fields near Fátima, Portugal, witnessed the "Miracle of the Sun".
- 1963 – Poet of the Republic of Korea and Rev. Seung-Moo Ha is born.
- 1979 – Michael Jackson's "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough" topped the Billboard Hot 100.
- 2000 – President Kim Dae-jung of South Korea became the first Korean winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
- 2013 – During the Hindu festival of Navratri at a temple in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, rumours about an impending bridge collapse caused a stampede that resulted in 115 deaths.
- 1066 – Norman conquest of England: The forces of William the Conqueror defeated the English army at Hastings and killed Harold Godwinson, the last crowned Anglo-Saxon king of England.
- 1863 – American Civil War: In the Battle of Bristoe Station, the Union II Corps surprised and repelled the Confederate attack on the Union rearguard, resulting in a Union victory.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: Inmates at the Sobibór extermination camp in eastern Poland led a revolt, killing 11 SS officers; the camp was shut down a few days later.
- 1956 – B. R. Ambedkar (pictured), a leader of India's "Untouchable" caste, publicly converted to Buddhism, becoming the leader of the Dalit Buddhist movement.
- 2012 – Felix Baumgartner jumped from a helium balloon in the stratosphere to become the first person to break the sound barrier without vehicular power.
- 1529 – The Siege of Vienna ended as the Austrians repelled the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of conquest in Europe by the Ottoman Empire.
- 1888 – George Lusk, the chairman of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee in London, received a letter allegedly from Jack the Ripper.
- 1932 – Air India (modern aircraft pictured), the flag carrier airline of India, began operations under the name Tata Airlines.
- 1965 – Vietnam War protests: At an anti-war rally in New York City, David J. Miller burned his draft card, the first such act to result in arrest under a new amendment to the Selective Service Act.
- 2013 – A 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck Bohol in the Philippines, resulting in 222 deaths.
- 1384 – Jadwiga was officially crowned as "King of Poland" instead of "Queen" to reflect the fact that she was a sovereign in her own right.
- 1793 – Marie Antoinette (pictured), queen consort of Louis XVI, was guillotined at the Place de la Révolution in Paris at the height of the French Revolution.
- 1875 – Brigham Young University, the largest religious university in the United States, was founded in Provo, Utah.
- 1923 – Roy and Walt Disney founded the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in Hollywood; it eventually grew to become one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world.
- 1978 – Polish Cardinal Karol Józef Wojtyła became Pope John Paul II, the first non-Italian pope in over 450 years and the first ever from a Slavic country.
- 1604 – German astronomer Johannes Kepler observed an exceptionally bright star, now known as Kepler's Supernova, which had suddenly appeared in the constellation Ophiuchus earlier in October.
- 1964 – Prime Minister of Australia Robert Menzies inaugurated the artificial Lake Burley Griffin (pictured) in the middle of the capital, Canberra.
- 1992 – Having gone to the wrong house for a Halloween party, Japanese exchange student Yoshihiro Hattori was shot and killed by the homeowner in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, U.S.
- 2001 – Rehavam Ze'evi, the Israeli Minister of Tourism, was assassinated in revenge for the killing of the PFLP leader Abu Ali Mustafa.
- 1565 – The first recorded naval battle between Europeans and the Japanese occurred when a flotilla of samurai attacked two Portuguese trade vessels in Nagasaki.
- 1748 – The War of the Austrian Succession ended with the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
- 1929 – In the Persons Case, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council decided that women were eligible to sit in the Canadian Senate.
- 1968 – At the Summer Olympics in Mexico City, American Bob Beamon (pictured) set a world record of 8.90 metres (29.2 ft) in the long jump, a mark that stood for 23 years.
- 1596 – The Spanish ship San Felipe was shipwrecked on the Japanese island of Shikoku and its cargo was confiscated by the local daimyō.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Despite incurring nearly twice as many casualties as the Confederates, the Union Army emerged victorious in the Battle of Cedar Creek.
- 1943 – Streptomycin (molecular model pictured), the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, was first isolated by a PhD student at Rutgers University.
- 1988 – The British government banned the voices of representatives from Sinn Féin and several Irish republican and Loyalist paramilitary groups from being broadcast on television and radio in the United Kingdom.
- 2005 – Hurricane Wilma became the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum atmospheric pressure of 882 mbar.
- 1740 – Under the terms of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, Maria Theresa (pictured) assumed the throne of the Habsburg Monarchy in Austria.
- 1944 – World War II: Fulfilling a promise he made two years previously, General Douglas MacArthur landed on Leyte to begin the recapture of the entire Philippine Archipelago.
- 1973 – Watergate scandal: Both Attorney General Elliot Richardson and his deputy William Ruckelshaus resigned rather than obey Richard Nixon's order to have Archibald Cox fired.
- 1982 – During a UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, a large number of attendees tried to leave the Grand Sports Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium at the same time, resulting in a stampede that caused 66 deaths.
- 2011 – Libyan Civil War: Muammar Gaddafi, the deposed leader of Libya, was captured during the Battle of Sirte and killed less than an hour later.
- 1520 – The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon near Canada were visited by Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes, who named them "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins".
- 1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Lord Nelson (pictured) signalled "England expects that every man will do his duty" to the rest of his Royal Navy forces before the Battle of Trafalgar off the coast of Spain's Cape Trafalgar.
- 1867 – The first of the Medicine Lodge Treaties was signed between the United States and several Native American tribes in the Great Plains, requiring them to relocate to areas in present-day western Oklahoma.
- 1966 – A coal tip fell on the village of Aberfan, Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren.
- 1994 – North Korea and the United States signed the Agreed Framework to limit North Korea's nuclear weapons program and to normalize relations between the two.
- 1797 – Dropping from a hydrogen balloon 3,200 feet (980 m) above Paris, André-Jacques Garnerin carried out the first descent using a frameless parachute (schematic pictured).
- 1877 – The Blantyre mining disaster, Scotland's worst mining accident, occurred when an explosion at a colliery in Blantyre killed 207 miners.
- 1907 – A bank run forced New York's Knickerbocker Trust Company to suspend operations, which triggered the Panic of 1907.
- 1966 – With their album The Supremes A' Go-Go, The Supremes became the first all-female group to reach number one on the U.S. Billboard 200.
- 2001 – The controversial video game Grand Theft Auto III was first released to critical acclaim, and went on to popularise open world and mature-content games.
- 1850 – The first National Women's Rights Convention, presided over by Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis (pictured), was held in Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces began their ill-fated attempt to recapture Henderson Field from the Americans.
- 1956 – The Hungarian Revolution began as a peaceful student demonstration which attracted thousands as it marched through central Budapest to the Parliament building.
- 2002 – Chechen separatists seized a crowded theater in Moscow, taking approximately 700 patrons and performers hostage.
- 1789 – The Brabant Revolution, sometimes considered as the first expression of Belgian nationalism, began with the invasion of the Austrian Netherlands by an émigré army from the Dutch Republic.
- 1851 – William Lassell discovered the Uranian moons Umbriel and Ariel.
- 1871 – The largest mass lynching in United States history took place when around 500 white rioters entered Chinatown in Los Angeles to attack, rob, and murder its residents.
- 1944 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese battleship Musashi (pictured), one of the heaviest and most powerfully armed ever constructed, was sunk in the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
- 1964 – The military court of South Vietnamese junta chief Nguyễn Khánh acquitted Generals Dương Văn Đức and Lâm Văn Phát of leading a coup attempt against Khanh, despite the pair's proclamation of his overthrow during their military action.
- 1147 – Reconquista: Forces under Afonso I of Portugal captured Lisbon from the Moors after a four-month siege in one of the few Christian victories during the Second Crusade.
- 1760 – George III (pictured) became King of Great Britain and Ireland.
- 1927 – A propeller shaft on the Italian cruise liner SS Principessa Mafalda broke and fractured the hull, sinking it and resulting in 314 deaths.
- 1950 – Korean War: The Chinese People's Volunteer Army ambushed the South Korean II Corps, marking China's entry into the war.
- 2010 – Mount Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia, began an increasingly violent series of eruptions that lasted over a month.
- 1341 – The Byzantine army proclaimed chief minister John VI Kantakouzenos emperor, triggering a civil war between his supporters and those of John V Palaiologos, the heir to the throne.
- 1881 – The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, one of the most famous gunfights of the American Old West, took place in Tombstone, Arizona, between Ike Clanton's gang and lawmen led by Wyatt Earp.
- 1955 – Ngo Dinh Diem proclaimed himself president of the newly created Republic of Vietnam after defeating former Emperor Bao Dai in a fraudulent referendum supervised by his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.
- 1977 – Somalian hospital cook Ali Maow Maalin began displaying symptoms in the last known case of naturally occurring smallpox.
- 2000 – Laurent Gbagbo (pictured) became the first elected President of Ivory Coast since Henri Konan Bédié was thrown out of power during the 1999 Ivorian coup d'état.
- 1682 – William Penn landed at New Castle, Delaware Colony, on his way to founding the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
- 1914 – World War I: The Royal Navy dreadnought HMS Audacious was sunk by a mine, but its loss was kept secret for four more years.
- 1958 – General Ayub Khan (pictured) deposed Iskander Mirza to become the second President of Pakistan.
- 1992 – U.S. Navy Petty Officer Allen R. Schindler Jr. was killed in Sasebo, Nagasaki, Japan, a victim of a hate crime for being gay, which led to the U.S. Armed Forces' "Don't ask, don't tell" policy.
- 2011 – Michael D. Higgins was elected President of Ireland with far more votes than any Irish politician in the history of the republic.
- 312 – Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Constantine the Great defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in Rome.
- 1453 – Ladislaus the Posthumous was crowned King of Bohemia, although George of Poděbrady remained in control of the government.
- 1919 – The U.S. Congress passed the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto, reinforcing Prohibition in the United States.
- 1925 – The funerary mask of Tutankhamun (pictured), possibly made for Queen Nefertiti, was uncovered for the first time in 3,250 years.
- 2013 – The first terrorist attack in Beijing's recent history took place when three members of the Turkistan Islamic Party drove a vehicle into a crowd.
- 539 BC – Cyrus the Great captured Babylon, incorporating the Neo-Babylonian Empire and making the Achaemenid Empire the largest in the history of the world to that time.
- 1792 – Lt. William Broughton, a member of George Vancouver's expedition, observed a peak in what is now Oregon, U.S., and named it Mount Hood (pictured) after British admiral Samuel Hood.
- 1917 – The Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, in charge of preparing for and carrying out the Russian Revolution, was established.
- 1960 – The C-46 airliner carrying the Cal Poly Mustangs football team crashed during takeoff from Toledo Express Airport in Ohio, U.S., resulting in 22 deaths.
- 1999 – About 10,000 people died when a supercyclone hit the Indian state of Odisha near the city of Bhubaneswar.
- 1806 – War of the Fourth Coalition: Believing they were massively outnumbered, the 5,300-man German garrison at Stettin, Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland), surrendered to a much smaller French force without a fight.
- 1888 – King Lobengula of Matabeleland granted the Rudd Concession to agents of Cecil Rhodes, setting in motion the creation of the British South Africa Company.
- 1918 – The Armistice of Mudros was signed in Moudros in the Lesbos Prefecture, Greece, ending the hostilities in the Middle-Eastern theatre of World War I, and paving the way for the occupation of Constantinople and the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
- 1961 – The Soviet hydrogen bomb Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever detonated, was set off over Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean as a test.
- 1983 – As the military dictatorship came to an end, Argentina's first democratic election in a decade resulted in Raúl Alfonsín (pictured) being elected President of Argentina.
- 1913 – Public transportation workers in Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S., went on strike, shutting down mass transit in the city and sparking riots when strikebreakers attempted to restart services.
- 1917 – World War I: Allied forces defeated Turkish troops in Beersheba in Southern Palestine at the Battle of Beersheba, with the battle involving one of the last successful cavalry charges.
- 1973 – Three Provisional Irish Republican Army members escaped from Mountjoy Prison in Dublin aboard a hijacked helicopter which landed in the prison's exercise yard.
- 1984 – Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (pictured) was assassinated by two of her own Sikh bodyguards, sparking anti-Sikh riots throughout the country.
- 2015 – Shortly after takeoff, Metrojet Flight 9268 exploded and then crashed into the Sinai Peninsula, killing all 224 people on board.