List of women cabinet ministers of the Republic of Ireland

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Máire Geoghegan-Quinn.
Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, who in 1979 became the first woman in an Irish cabinet since 1921

The Government of Ireland (Irish: Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. Its ministers are collectively responsible for the Departments of State administered by the members of the Government.[1]

As of October 2018, nineteen women have served as cabinet ministers in governments of the Republic of Ireland and its predecessors the Irish Free State (1922–1937) and the Irish Republic (1919–1922).[2] After a 58-year gap between the first and second women ministers,[3] there has been at least one woman in all cabinets since December 1982. No woman has ever been Taoiseach (prime minister), but four women have served as Tánaiste (deputy prime minister).[4] Other women have served outside the cabinet as junior ministers, known until 1978 as Parliamentary Secretaries, and since then as Ministers of State.[n 1] For example, three of the nineteen Ministers of State appointed In June 2017 were women.[8]

The 31st Government of Ireland was formed in June 2017. As of October 2018 it includes four women as ministers in the cabinet of Taoiseach Leo Varadkar: Heather Humphreys, Katherine Zappone, Regina Doherty and Josepha Madigan.[9] No more than four women have served simultaneously in any cabinet, and a 2014 pledge by the then-Taoiseach Enda Kenny to create a gender-balanced cabinet remains unfulfilled.[10][11] Criticism of the imbalance is defended by pointing to male dominance of the Oireachtas (parliament) from which ministers are appointed.[12]

Constitution

Government Buildings, Dublin.
Government Buildings in Dublin, where the Irish cabinet has met since 1922.

The 1937 Constitution of Ireland requires the government to consist of between seven and fifteen members,[13] including the Taoiseach (prime minister). The Taoiseach is elected by Dáil Éireann (the lower house of the Oireachtas),[14] and chooses the other ministers[14] including the Tánaiste (deputy prime minister).[15]

Since the formation of the 12th Government of Ireland in 1966,[16] all Irish cabinets have been formed with the constitutional maximum of fifteen ministers. The total sometimes falls below this number for brief periods following the resignation of individual ministers or the withdrawal of a party from a coalition. For example, six ministers resigned in January 2011 from the 28th Government of Ireland, and were not replaced until March, when the 29th Government was formed after the general election in February.[17][18][19]

Each minister must be a member of the Oireachtas (the national parliament),[20] whose eligibility criteria for membership are defined as being "without distinction of sex".[21] Up to two members of the Government may be members of Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Oireachtas,[22] but the only three senators ever appointed as ministers were men.[23] All women in Irish cabinets have been Teachtaí Dála (TDs), i.e. members of Dáil Éireann.

History

Constance Markievicz.
Constance Markievicz, the first woman cabinet minister in Ireland

The first woman cabinet minister in Ireland was Constance Markievicz,[24] who in April 1919 became Minister for Labour in the Second Ministry of the revolutionary First Dáil.[25] She was only[26][27] the second woman minister in the national government of any country, after Alexandra Kollontai's appointment in 1917 as People's Commissar in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.[28]

When the Second Dáil assembled in August 1921, Markievicz continued as Minister for Labour,[29] but her post was no longer at cabinet level in the Government of the Second Dáil.[24] Markievicz and other ministers opposed to the Anglo-Irish Treaty resigned from the Government on 9 January 1922.[24][29]

The general election in June 1922 saw only two women returned to the Third Dáil,[30] down from six at the 1921 election,[31] when 4.7% of TDs were women. The 1920s and 1930s were a conservative period in Ireland, in which women's rights were reversed,[32] and no women were members of the Executive Council of the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. From the 1930s to the 1960s most women TDs were widows or other relatives of deceased TDs,[33] and the 4.7% ratio achieved in 1921 was not equalled again until the 1981 general election returned 11 women, who comprised 6.6% of the 22nd Dáil.[34]

Niamh Bhreathnach.
Niamh Bhreathnach, the first woman to be appointed as minister at the start of her first Dáil term

More than 58 years elapsed between Markievicz leaving office and the appointment in December 1979 of Máire Geoghegan-Quinn as the second woman in cabinet.[3] In 1977, Geoghegan-Quinn had become the first woman since Markievicz to serve as a junior minister in the Irish government,[35] when Jack Lynch appointed her as Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Industry and Commerce.[36] Two years later, aged 29, she was "flabbergasted"[27] to become Minister for the Gaeltacht in the first cabinet of Taoiseach Charles Haughey.[36]

Since then, the only all-male Irish government was the March–December 1982 second government of Charles Haughey.[37] All cabinets since December 1982 have included at least one woman. The first time two women served as ministers simultaneously was in January 1993, when Taoiseach Albert Reynolds included both Máire Geoghegan-Quinn and Niamh Bhreathnach in his cabinet.[38] Bhreathnach was the first woman to be appointed as minister at the start of her first Dáil term,[39] and the only one until Katherine Zappone became Minister for Children and Youth Affairs in May 2016.[4]

Mary Harney.
Mary Harney, the first woman Tánaiste

Only three ministerial offices are specifically identified in the constitution: Taoiseach, Tánaiste and Minister for Finance.[20] No woman has ever been elected as Taoiseach[40] or appointed as Minister for Finance.[41] However, four women have served as Tánaiste.[4] The first woman Tánaiste was Mary Harney (1997–2006), who in 1993 had become the first woman to lead a political party in the Dáil.[42] Harney was followed by Mary Coughlan (2008–2011),[4] Joan Burton (2014–2016),[4] and Frances Fitzgerald (2016–2017).[4]

Political scientists Yvonne Galligan and Fiona Buckley note that women have been grossly under-represented in Irish politics,[4] with men making up 91% of all cabinet appointments between 1919 and June 2017.[4] They also found that women in the Irish cabinet are twice as likely to hold a social portfolio (48%) than an economic portfolio (24%).[4] By contrast, only 17% of men held social portfolios, and 52% held an economic or foreign affairs portfolio.[4]

All but two of the women who have served as ministers since 1919 are still alive. The first Irish woman minister, Constance Markievicz, died in 1927,[43] and the third, Eileen Desmond, died in 2005.[44] Ireland's oldest living woman former minister is 81-year-old[45] Mary O'Rourke.

Calls for gender balance

Katherine Zappone.
Katherine Zappone, the first woman to be appointed to an Irish cabinet as an independent politician

The highest number of women ever in an Irish cabinet is four, a number first reached in 2004–2007, and again from 2014 to the present. However, this amounts to only 27% of the 15 ministers, and has been criticised by the National Women's Council of Ireland as "way off a gender balanced Cabinet".[46] In 2014, then Taoiseach Enda Kenny had pledged that if re-elected he would appoint a cabinet "50:50 on merit, of men and women".[10] When Kenny formed the 30th Government in May 2016 with four women ministers, he was criticised by women campaigners for the lack of increase.[11] Minister Regina Doherty defended Kenny, saying he had "probably done the best that he can do".[46] TheJournal.ie noted that the "proportion of senior ministers who are women is 27%, higher than the 22% of TDs".[11]

In June 2017, Kenny's successor Leo Varadkar appointed four women to his cabinet. He too was criticised for not including more women,[46] but replied that "your ministerial team generally reflects the composition of the Dáil".[12] Varadkar promised "to make sure we have many more women in our next parliamentary party so that I can promote many more women".[12]

In February 2018, Culture Minister Josepha Madigan launched a programme of commemoration of the centenary of women's enfranchisement. The Representation of the People Act 1918 gave limited voting rights for women. The right to stand for election was granted later in 1918, by the Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act.[47][48] Madigan said the Irish State "failed women for far too long,"[49] and that it was time to "redouble our efforts" to provide equal opportunities.[47] Former Tánaiste Joan Burton called for the next government to consist of an equal number of men and women.[47]

List of women ministers

Numerical order represents the order of first appointment to the cabinet.
Age represents age on appointment to that office.

  Denotes incumbent minister
# Name Portrait Office Party Appointed Left office Age Taoiseach Dáil
1 Constance Markievicz
(1868–1927)[43]
Constance Markievicz. Minister for Labour[25] Sinn Féin 1 April 1919[25] 26 August 1921[25] 51 Éamon de Valera[n 2] 1st Dáil
2 Máire Geoghegan-Quinn
(born 1950)[53]
Máire Geoghegan-Quinn. Minister for the Gaeltacht[36] Fianna Fáil 11 December 1979[36] 30 June 1981[36] 29 Charles Haughey 21st Dáil
Minister for Tourism, Transport & Communications[54] 11 February 1992[54] 12 January 1993[54] 42 Albert Reynolds 26th Dáil
Minister for Justice[38] 4 January 1993[38] 15 December 1994[38] 42 27th Dáil
3 Eileen Desmond
(1932–2005)[44]
Minister for Health and Social Welfare[55] Labour 30 June 1981[55] 9 March 1982[55] 48 Garret FitzGerald 22nd Dáil
4 Gemma Hussey
(born 1938)[56]
Minister for Education[57] Fine Gael 14 December 1982[57] 14 February 1986[57] 44 Garret FitzGerald 24th Dáil
Minister for Social Welfare[57] 14 February 1986[57] 10 March 1987[57] 47
Minister for Labour[57] 20 January 1987[57] 10 March 1987[57] 48
5 Mary O'Rourke
(born 1937)[45]
Minister for Education[58][54] Fianna Fáil 10 March 1987[58][54] 11 February 1991[58][54] 49 Charles Haughey 25th Dáil
26th Dáil
Albert Reynolds
Minister for Health and Children[54] 12 July 1991[54] 11 February 1992[54] 54 Albert Reynolds
Minister for Public Enterprise[59] 26 June 1997[59] 6 June 2002[59] 60 Bertie Ahern 28th Dáil
6 Niamh Bhreathnach
(born 1945)[60]
Niamh Bhreathnach. Minister for Education[38] Labour 12 January 1993[38] 17 November 1994[38] 47 Albert Reynolds 27th Dáil (a)
15 December 1994[38] 26 June 1997[38] 49 John Bruton 27th Dáil (b)
7 Nora Owen
(born 1945)[61]
Minister for Justice[38] Fine Gael 15 December 1994[38] 26 June 1997 49
8= Mary Harney
(born 1953)[62]
Mary Harney. Tánaiste[59][63] Progressive Democrats
(until 2009)[n 3]
26 June 1997[59][63] 13 September 2006[59][63] 44 Bertie Ahern 28th Dáil
29th Dáil
Minister for Enterprise, Trade & Employment[59][63] 26 June 1997[59][63] 13 September 2004[59][63] 28th Dáil
29th Dáil
Minister for Health & Children[63][18] 29 September 2004[63][18] 19 January 2011[63][18] 51 29th Dáil
Bertie Ahern 30th Dáil
Brian Cowen
Independent
(2009–2011)[n 3]
8= Síle de Valera
(born 1954)[65]
Minister for Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht & the Islands[59] Fianna Fáil 26 June 1997[59] 6 June 2002[59] 42 Bertie Ahern 28th Dáil
10 Mary Coughlan
(born 1965)[66]
Mary Coughlan. Minister for Social & Family Affairs[63] Fianna Fáil 17 June 2002[63] 29 September 2004[63] 37 Bertie Ahern 29th Dáil
Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries & Food[63][18] 29 September 2004[63][18] 7 May 2008[63][18] 39 Bertie Ahern 29th Dáil
Bertie Ahern 30th Dáil
Tánaiste[18] 7 May 2008[18] 9 March 2011[18] 42 Brian Cowen 30th Dáil
Minister for Enterprise, Trade & Employment[18] 7 May 2008[18] 23 March 2010[18] 42
Minister for Education and Skills[18] 23 March 2010[18] 9 March 2011[18] 44
Minister for Health and Children[18] 20 January 2011[18] 9 March 2011[18] 51
11 Mary Hanafin
(born 1959)[67]
Mary Hanafin. Minister for Education and Science[63][18] Fianna Fáil 29 September 2004[63][18] 7 May 2008[63][18] 45 Bertie Ahern 29th Dáil
30th Dáil
Minister for Social & Family Affairs[18] 7 May 2008[18] 23 March 2010[18] 48 Brian Cowen 30th Dáil
Minister for Tourism, Culture & Sport[18] 23 March 2010[18] 9 March 2011[18] 50
Minister for Enterprise, Trade & Innovation[18] 20 January 2011[18] 9 March 2011[18] 51
12= Joan Burton
(born 1949)[68]
Joan Burton. Minister for Social Protection[69] Labour 9 March 2011[69] 6 May 2016[69] 62 Enda Kenny 31st Dáil
Tánaiste[69] 4 July 2014[69] 6 May 2016[69] 65
12= Frances Fitzgerald
(born 1950)[70]
Frances Fitzgerald. Minister for Children and Youth Affairs[69] Fine Gael 9 March 2011[69] 7 May 2014[69] 60 Enda Kenny 31st Dáil
Minister for Justice & Equality[69] 8 May 2014[69] 14 June 2017 63
32nd Dáil
Tánaiste 6 May 2016 28 November 2017 65
Leo Varadkar
Minister for Business, Enterprise & Innovation 14 June 2017 28 November 2017 66
14= Jan O'Sullivan
(born 1950)[71]
Jan O'Sullivan. Minister for Education & Skills[69] Labour 11 July 2014[69] 6 May 2016[69] 53 Enda Kenny 31st Dáil
14= Heather Humphreys Heather Humphreys. Minister for Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht[69] Fine Gael 11 July 2014[69] 30 November 2017 ? Enda Kenny 31st Dáil
32nd Dáil
Leo Varadkar
Minister for Business, Enterprise & Innovation 30 November 2017 incumbent ?
16= Mary Mitchell O'Connor
(born 1959)[72]
Mary Mitchell O'Connor. Minister for Jobs, Enterprise & Innovation Fine Gael 6 May 2016 14 June 2017 56 Enda Kenny 32nd Dáil
16= Katherine Zappone
(born 1953)[73]
Katherine Zappone. Minister for Children & Youth Affairs Independent 6 May 2016 incumbent 62 Enda Kenny 32nd Dáil
Leo Varadkar
18 Regina Doherty
(born 1971)[74]
Regina Doherty. Minister for Employment Affairs & Social Protection Fine Gael 14 June 2017 incumbent 46 Leo Varadkar 32nd Dáil
19 Josepha Madigan Minister for Culture, Heritage & the Gaeltacht Fine Gael 30 November 2017 incumbent ? Leo Varadkar 32nd Dáil

Timeline

Josepha MadiganRegina DohertyMary Mitchell O'ConnorKatherine ZapponeJan O'SullivanHeather HumphreysJoan BurtonFrances Fitzgerald (politician)Mary HanafinMary Coughlan (politician)Síle de ValeraMary HarneyNora OwenNiamh BhreathnachMary O'RourkeGemma HusseyEileen DesmondMáire Geoghegan-QuinnConstance Markievicz

Number of women ministers in each Cabinet

Key to parties
State Dáil Election/Formed Cabinet No. of
women in
cabinet
Party
composition
Head Deputy
Irish Republic 1st 1918 election 1st Ministry 0 SF Cathal Brugha N/A
1919 2nd Ministry 1 Éamon de Valera N/A
2nd 1921 elections 3rd Ministry 0 SF Éamon de Valera N/A
1922 (Jan) 4th Ministry[n 4] 0 SF (PT) Arthur Griffith N/A
Southern Ireland 1922 election 1st Provisional Government [n 4] 0 Michael Collins N/A
3rd 1922 (Aug) 2nd Provisional Government 0 SF (PT) (minority) W. T. Cosgrave N/A
Irish Free State 1922 (Dec) 1st Executive Council 0 Kevin O'Higgins
4th 1923 election 2nd Executive Council 0 CnaG (minority) W. T. Cosgrave Kevin O'Higgins
5th 1927 (Jun) election 3rd Executive Council 0 CnaG (minority) W. T. Cosgrave Kevin O'Higgins
Ernest Blythe
6th 1927 (Sep) election 4th Executive Council 0 CnaG (minority) W. T. Cosgrave Ernest Blythe
1930 5th Executive Council 0
7th 1932 election 6th Executive Council 0 FF (minority) Éamon de Valera Seán T. O'Kelly
8th 1933 election 7th Executive Council 0 FF (minority) Éamon de Valera Seán T. O'Kelly
9th 1937 election 8th Executive Council 0 FF (minority) Éamon de Valera Seán T. O'Kelly
Ireland 1937 1st Government 0
10th 1938 election 2nd Government 0 FF Éamon de Valera Seán T. O'Kelly
11th 1943 election 3rd Government 0 FF (minority) Éamon de Valera Seán T. O'Kelly
12th 1944 election 4th Government 0 FF Éamon de Valera Seán T. O'Kelly
13th 1948 election 5th Government 0 FGLabCnaPCnaTNLPInd John A. Costello William Norton
14th 1951 election 6th Government 0 FF (minority) Éamon de Valera Seán Lemass
15th 1954 election 7th Government 0 FGLabCnaT John A. Costello William Norton
16th 1957 election 8th Government 0 FF Éamon de Valera Seán Lemass
1959 9th Government 0 Seán Lemass Seán MacEntee
17th 1961 election 10th Government 0 FF (minority) Seán Lemass Seán MacEntee
18th 1965 election 11th Government 0 FF Seán Lemass Frank Aiken
1966 12th Government 0 Jack Lynch
19th 1969 election 13th Government 0 FF Jack Lynch Erskine H. Childers
20th 1973 election 14th Government 0 FGLab Liam Cosgrave Brendan Corish
21st 1977 election 15th Government 0 FF Jack Lynch George Colley
1979 16th Government 1 Charles Haughey
22nd 1981 election 17th Government 0 FGLab (minority) Garret FitzGerald Michael O'Leary
23rd 1982 (Feb) election 18th Government 0 FF (minority) Charles Haughey Ray MacSharry
24th 1982 (Nov) election 19th Government 1 FGLab
FG (minority) from Jan. 1987
Garret FitzGerald Dick Spring
Peter Barry
25th 1987 election 20th Government 1 FF (minority) Charles Haughey Brian Lenihan
26th 1989 election 21st Government 1 FFPD Charles Haughey Brian Lenihan
John Wilson
1992 22nd Government 1 Albert Reynolds John Wilson
27th 1992 election 23rd Government 2 FFLab
FF (minority) from Nov. 1994
Albert Reynolds Dick Spring
1 Bertie Ahern
1994 24th Government 2 FGLabDL John Bruton Dick Spring
28th 1997 election 25th Government 3 FFPD (minority) Bertie Ahern Mary Harney
29th 2002 election 26th Government 2 FFPD Bertie Ahern Mary Harney
2004 4
30th 2007 election 27th Government 3 FFGreenPD Bertie Ahern Brian Cowen
2008 28th Government FFGPPD

FFGPInd from Nov. 2009
FF (minority) from Jan. 2011

Brian Cowen Mary Coughlan
31st 2011 election 29th Government 2 FGLab Enda Kenny Eamon Gilmore
2014 4 Joan Burton
32nd 2016 election 30th Government 4 FGInd (minority) Enda Kenny Frances Fitzgerald
2017 (June) 31st Government 4 FGInd (minority) Leo Varadkar
2017 (November) Simon Coveney

Notes

  1. ^ Some Ministers of State, including the Government Chief Whip,[5] attend cabinet meetings in a non-voting capacity, but are not members of the Government. They are formally known as "Minister of State attending Government",[6] or colloquially as "Super Junior" ministers.[7]
  2. ^ This column has been labelled "Taoiseach" for brevity, but it is anachronistic in the case of Constance Markievicz's 1919–21 tenure as minister. Éamon de Valera's title as head of government in the First Dáil was Príomh Aire, or in English President of Dáil Éireann.[50] The 1922–1937 Irish Free State, which had no women cabinet ministers and no women Parliamentary Secretaries (junior ministers), used the title President of the Executive Council.[51][40] The title of Taoiseach for the head of government was introduced in the 1937 Constitution of Ireland.[51][52] The first woman to serve as a cabinet minister under a Taoiseach was Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, who was appointed in 1979 to Charles Haughey's first cabinet.
  3. ^ a b The Progressive Democrats dissolved in November 2009.[62] Mary Harney then sat as an independent TD[62] and continued to serve as a minister for the remainder of the 30th Dáil[64] until she retired from politics at the 2011 general election.
  4. ^ a b The Fourth Ministry and First Provisional Government held office simultaneously for many months.[75] The membership of both was merged when the Second Provisional Government came to office after the 1922 general election.[76]

References

  1. ^ Constitution of Ireland, Article 28, Section 4.2
  2. ^ McQuinn, Cormac (3 December 2017). "'I think what's putting women off politics is this hostile environment'". Irish Independent. Dublin. ISSN 0021-1222. Retrieved 23 January 2018. The 47-year-old mother-of-two is only the 19th woman to be appointed as a senior minister in the history of the State
  3. ^ a b McNamara & Mooney 2000, p. 18.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Galligan & Buckley 2017.
  5. ^ "Role of Minister of State (Chief Whip)". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  6. ^ "Appointment of Taoiseach and Nomination of Members of Government". Dáil Éireann Debate Vol. 908 No. 3. Oireachtas. 6 May 2016. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  7. ^ "Five new Ministers of State appointed". RTÉ News. 20 June 2017. OCLC 891147862. Archived from the original on 22 November 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  8. ^ McGee, Harry; Minihan, Mary (21 June 2017). "Only three out of 19 new Ministers of State are women". The Irish Times. Dublin. ISSN 1393-3515. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  9. ^ "List of Ministers and Ministers of State". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 3 November 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  10. ^ a b Collins, Stephen (19 December 2014). "Enda Kenny pledges to appoint women to half of cabinet posts". The Irish Times. Dublin. ISSN 1393-3515. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  11. ^ a b c MacGuil, Dan (7 May 2016). "Despite a pledge by Enda Kenny, no increase in the number of female ministers". TheJournal.ie. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  12. ^ a b c Downing, John; O'Connor, Niall; Collins, Sarah (24 June 2017). "Leo: 'Diversity is not just about picking women'". Irish Independent. Dublin. ISSN 0021-1222. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  13. ^ Constitution of Ireland, Article 28, Section 1
  14. ^ a b Constitution of Ireland, Article 13, Section 1
  15. ^ Constitution of Ireland, Article 28, Section 6
  16. ^ "History of Government – Eighteenth Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  17. ^ "The worst week for the worst Taoiseach in the State's history". Irish Independent. Dublin. 23 January 2011. ISSN 0021-1222. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "History of Government – Thirtieth Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  19. ^ "Election date set after day of political drama". RTÉ News. 20 January 2011. OCLC 891147862. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  20. ^ a b Constitution of Ireland, Article 28, Section 7
  21. ^ Constitution of Ireland, Article 26, Section 1 and Article 18, Section 2
  22. ^ Constitution of Ireland, Article 28, Section 2, Subsection 2.
  23. ^ O'Toole & Dooney 2009, p. 9.
  24. ^ a b c McNamara & Mooney 2000, p. 74.
  25. ^ a b c d "History of Government – First Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  26. ^ Coleman 2013, p. 47.
  27. ^ a b Siggins, Ger (13 December 2015). "Flashback 1979: Máire Geoghegan-Quinn becomes first Irish female minister". Sunday Independent. Dublin. ISSN 0021-1222. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  28. ^ Offen 2000, p. 341.
  29. ^ a b "History of Government – Second Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  30. ^ McNamara & Mooney 2000, p. 83.
  31. ^ McNamara & Mooney 2000, p. 75.
  32. ^ McNamara & Mooney 2000, p. 16.
  33. ^ McNamara & Mooney 2000, pp. 16, 64.
  34. ^ McNamara & Mooney 2000, p. 115.
  35. ^ Galligan & Buckley 2017, Box 9.1 Firsts for women in politics.
  36. ^ a b c d e "History of Government – Twenty-First Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  37. ^ "History of Government – Twenty-Third Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "History of Government – Twenty-Seventh Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  39. ^ McNamara & Mooney 2000, p. 139.
  40. ^ a b "Former Taoisigh". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 17 December 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  41. ^ "Former Finance Ministers". Department of Finance. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  42. ^ McNamara & Mooney 2000, p. 121.
  43. ^ a b "Countess Constance Georgina de Markievicz". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  44. ^ a b "Mrs. Eileen Desmond". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  45. ^ a b "Ms. Mary O'Rourke". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  46. ^ a b c Gallagher, Páraic (15 June 2017). "Criticisms leveled at Leo Varadkar's new Cabinet". Newstalk. Dublin. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  47. ^ a b c McEnroe, Juno (7 February 2018). "TDs call for gender equality in cabinet". Irish Examiner. Cork. ISSN 1393-9564. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  48. ^ McNamara & Mooney 2000, p. 15.
  49. ^ McGreevy, Ronan (7 February 2018). "Minister says conservative Irish State let women down for 'far too long'". The Irish Times. Dublin. ISSN 1393-3515. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  50. ^ Coogan, Tim Pat (2015) [1993]. De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow (2nd ed.). London: Arrow Books. p. 132. ISBN 9781784753276 – via Google Books.
  51. ^ a b Coakley & Gallagher 2017, p. 474.
  52. ^ Constitution of Ireland, Article 28
  53. ^ "Mrs. Máire Geoghegan-Quinn". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i "History of Government – Twenty-Sixth Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  55. ^ a b c "History of Government – Twenty-Second Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  56. ^ "Mrs. Gemma Hussey". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i "History of Government – Twenty-Fourth Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  58. ^ a b c "History of Government – Twenty-Fifth Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "History of Government – Twenty-Eight Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  60. ^ "Mrs. Niamh Bhreathnach". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  61. ^ "Mrs. Nora Owen". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  62. ^ a b c "Ms. Mary Harney". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "History of Government – Twenty Ninth Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  64. ^ "History of Government – Thirtieth Dáil - Twenty Eighth Government". Department of the Taoiseach. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  65. ^ "Ms. Síle de Valera". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  66. ^ "Ms. Mary Coughlan". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
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Bibliography