Jiajing Emperor

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Jiajing Emperor
明世宗像.jpg
12th Emperor of the Ming dynasty
Reign27 May 1521 – 23 January 1567
Coronation27 May 1521
PredecessorZhengde Emperor
SuccessorLongqing Emperor
Born16 September 1507
Died23 January 1567(1567-01-23) (aged 59)
BurialYongling, Ming Dynasty Tombs, Beijing
Consorts
Empress Xiaojiesu
(m. 1522; died 1528)

Zhang Qijie
(m. 1522; dep. 1534)

Empress Xiaolie
(m. 1530; died 1547)

Empress Xiaoke
(m. 1530; died 1554)
IssuePrincess Chang'an
Zhu Zairui
Longqing Emperor
Zhu Zaizhen
Princess Ning'an
Princess Jiashan
Full name
Family name: Zhu (朱; Chu in Wade-Giles spelling)
Given name: Houcong (厚熜; Hou-tsung in Wade-Giles spelling)
Era name and dates
Jiajing (Chia-ching; 嘉靖): 28 January 1522 – 8 February 1567
Posthumous name
Emperor Qintian Lüdao Yingyi Shengshen Xuanwen Guangwu Hongren Daxiao Su
欽天履道英毅聖神宣文廣武洪仁大孝肅皇帝
Temple name
Ming Shizong
明世宗
HouseHouse of Zhu
FatherZhu Youyuan
MotherEmpress Cixiaoxian

The Jiajing Emperor (Chinese: 嘉靖; pinyin: Jiājìng; Wade–Giles: Chia-ching; 16 September 1507 – 23 January 1567) was the 12th emperor of the Chinese Ming dynasty who ruled from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu Houcong, he was the former Zhengde Emperor's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan (1476–1519), the Prince of Xing, was the fourth son of the Chenghua Emperor (r. 1465–1487) and the eldest son of three sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady Shao. The Jiajing Emperor's regnal name, "Jiajing", means "admirable tranquility".

Early years

Born as heir apparent of a vassal prince, Zhu Houcong was not brought up to succeed to the throne. However, the throne became vacant in 1521 with the sudden death of the Hongzhi Emperor's son, the Zhengde Emperor, who did not leave an heir. Prior to Zhengde Emperor's death, the line of succession was as follows:

...

The 14-year-old Zhu Houcong, then heir presumptive, succeeded to the throne, and so relocated from his father's princedom (near present-day Zhongxiang, Hubei) to the capital, Beijing. As the Jiajing Emperor, Zhu Houcong had his parents posthumously elevated to an "honorary" imperial rank, and had an imperial-style Xianling Mausoleum built for them near Zhongxiang.[1]

Reign as emperor

Yellow glazed pot and cover with hidden streak designs from the official kiln. Jiajing era. Excavated from Dadao tomb, Huangzhou.

Custom dictated that an emperor who was not an immediate descendant of the previous one should be adopted by the previous one, to maintain an unbroken line. Such a posthumous adoption of Zhu Houcong by the Hongzhi Emperor was proposed, but he resisted, preferring instead to have his father declared emperor posthumously. This conflict is known as the "Great Rites Controversy." The Jiajing Emperor prevailed and hundreds of his opponents were banished, flogged in the imperial court (廷杖), or executed. Among the banished was the poet Yang Shen.[2]

The Jiajing Emperor was known to be intelligent and efficient; whilst later he went on strike, and choose not to attend any state meetings, he did not neglect the paperwork and other governmental matters. The Jiajing Emperor was also known to be a cruel and self-aggrandizing emperor and he also chose to reside outside of the Forbidden City in Beijing so he could live in isolation. Ignoring state affairs, the Jiajing Emperor relied on Zhang Cong and Yan Song to handle affairs of state. In time, Yan Song and his son Yan Shifan – who gained power only as a result of his father's political influence – came to dominate the whole government even being called the "First and Second Prime Minister". Ministers such as Hai Rui and Yang Jisheng challenged and even chastised Yan Song and his son but were thoroughly ignored by the emperor. Hai Rui and many ministers were eventually dismissed or executed. The Jiajing Emperor also abandoned the practice of seeing his ministers altogether from 1539 onwards, and for a period of almost 25 years refused to give official audiences, choosing instead to relay his wishes through eunuchs and officials. Only Yan Song, a few handful of eunuchs and Daoist priests ever saw the emperor. This eventually led to corruption at all levels of the Ming government. However, the Jiajing Emperor was intelligent and managed to control the court.[3]

The Ming dynasty had enjoyed a long period of peace, but in 1542 the Mongol leader Altan Khan began to harass China along the northern border. In 1550, he even reached the suburbs of Beijing. Eventually the Ming government appeased him by granting special trading rights. The Ming government also had to deal with wokou pirates attacking the southeastern coastline.[4] Starting in 1550, Beijing was enlarged by the addition of the outer city.[5]

The deadliest earthquake of all times, the Shaanxi earthquake of 1556 that killed over 800,000 people, occurred during the Jiajing Emperor's reign.

Plot of Renyin year

The Jiajing Emperor's ruthlessness and lecherous life also led to an internal plot by his concubines and palace maids to assassinate him in October, 1542 by strangling him while he slept. His pursuit of eternal life led him to believe that one of the elixirs of extending his life was to force virgin palace maids to collect menstrual blood for his consumption. These arduous tasks were performed non-stop even when the palace maids were taken ill and any unwilling participants were executed on the Emperor's whim. A group of palace maids who had had enough of the emperor's cruelty decided to band together to murder him in an event known as the Renyin Plot (壬寅宮變). The lead palace maid tried to strangle the emperor with ribbons from her hair while the others held down the emperor's arms and legs but made a fatal mistake by tying a knot around the emperor's neck which would not tighten. Meanwhile, some of the young palace maids involved began to panic and one (Zhang Jinlian) ran to the empress. The plot was exposed and on the orders of the empress and some officials, all of the palace maids involved, including the emperor's favourite concubine (Consort Duan) and another concubine (Consort Ning, née Wang), were ordered to be executed by slow slicing and their families were killed.[6][7][8] The Jiajing Emperor later determined that Consort Duan had been innocent,[9] and dictated that their daughter, Luzheng, be raised by Imperial Noble Consort Shen.[10]

The Jiajing Emperor on his state barge, from a scroll painted in 1538 by unknown court artists
A porcelain vase with glazed fish designs, from the Jiajing era.

Taoist pursuits

The Jiajing Emperor was a devoted follower of Taoism and attempted to suppress Buddhism. After the assassination attempt in 1542, the emperor moved out of the imperial palace, and lived with a 13-year-old teenage girl who was small and thin, and was able to satisfy his sexual appetite (Lady Shan). The Jiajing Emperor began to pay excessive attention to his Taoist pursuits while ignoring his imperial duties. He built the three Taoist temples Temple of Sun, Temple of Earth and Temple of Moon and extended the Temple of Heaven by adding the Earthly Mount. Over the years, the emperor's devotion to Taoism was to become a heavy financial burden for the Ming government and create dissent across the country.

Particularly during his later years, the Jiajing Emperor was known for spending a great deal of time on alchemy in hopes of finding medicines to prolong his life. He would forcibly recruit young girls in their early teens and engaged in sexual activities in hopes of empowering himself, along with the consumption of potent elixirs. He employed Taoist priests to collect rare minerals from all over the country to create elixirs, including elixirs containing mercury, which inevitably posed health problems at high doses.

Legacy and death

After 45 years on the throne (the second longest reign in the Ming dynasty), the Jiajing Emperor died in 1567 – possibly due to mercury overdose from Chinese alchemical elixir poisoning – and was succeeded by his son, the Longqing Emperor. Though his long rule gave the dynasty an era of stability, the Jiajing Emperor's neglect of his official duties resulted in the decline of the dynasty at the end of the 16th century. His style of governance, or the lack thereof, would be emulated by his grandson later in the century.

Portrayal in art

The Jiajing Emperor was portrayed in contemporary court portrait paintings, as well as in other works of art. For example, in this panoramic painting below, the Jiajing Emperor can be seen in the right half riding a black steed and wearing a plumed helmet. He is distinguished from his entourage of bodyguards as an abnormally tall figure.

Original – A panoramic painting showing the Jiajing Emperor traveling to the Ming Dynasty Tombs with a huge cavalry escort and an elephant-drawn carriage.

Family

  • Parents:
    • Zhu Youyuan, Emperor Xian (獻皇帝 朱佑杬; 1476 – 1519)
    • Empress Cixiaoxian, of the Jiang clan (慈孝獻皇后 蔣氏; d. 1538)
  • Consorts and Issue:
  1. Empress Xiaojiesu, of the Chen clan (孝潔肅皇后 陳氏; 1508 – 1528)
  2. Empress, of the Zhang clan (皇后 張氏; d. 1537), personal name Qijie (七姐)
  3. Empress Xiaolie, of the Fang clan (孝烈皇后 方氏; 1516 – 1547)
  4. Empress Xiaoke, of the Du clan (孝恪皇后 杜氏; d. 1554)
    1. Zhu Zaihou, Muzong (穆宗 朱載垕; 1537 – 1572)
  5. Imperial Noble Consort Duanhe, of the Wang clan (端和皇貴妃 王氏; d. 1553)
    1. Zhu Zairui, Crown Prince Zhuangjing (莊敬皇太子 朱載壡; 1536 – 1549)
  6. Imperial Noble Consort Zhuangshun, of the Shen clan (莊順皇貴妃 沈氏; d. 1581)
  7. Imperial Noble Consort Rong'an, of the Yan clan (榮安皇貴妃 閻氏; d. 1541)
    1. Zhu Zaiji, Crown Prince Aichong (哀衝皇太子 朱載基; 1533)
  8. Noble Consort Gongxi, of the Wen clan (恭僖貴妃 文氏)
  9. Noble Consort Rong'an, of the Ma clan (榮安貴妃 馬氏)
  10. Consort Daoyingong, of the Wen clan (悼隱恭妃 文氏; d. 1532)
  11. Consort Duan, of the Cao clan (端妃 曹氏; d. 1542)
    1. Princess Chang'an (常安公主; 1536 – 1549), personal name Shouying (壽媖)
    2. Princess Ning'an (寧安公主; 1539 – 1607), personal name Luzheng (祿媜)
  12. Consort Huairongxian, of the Zheng clan (懷榮賢妃 鄭氏; d. 1536)
  13. Consort Jing, of the Lu clan (靖妃 盧氏; d. 1588)
    1. Zhu Zaizhen, Prince Jinggong (景恭王 朱載圳; 1537 – 1565)
  14. Consort Su, of the Jiang clan (肅妃 江氏)
    1. Zhu Zailu, Prince Yingshang (潁殤王 朱載𪉖; 1537)
  15. Consort Yi, of the Zhao clan (懿妃 趙氏; d. 1569)
    1. Zhu Zai?, Prince Qihuai (戚懷王 朱載Zh 戛鬥土.svg; 1537 – 1538)
  16. Consort Yong, of the Chen clan (雍妃 陳氏; d. 1586)
    1. Zhu Zaikui, Prince Ji'ai (薊哀王 朱載㙺; 1538 – 1538)
    2. Princess Guishan (歸善公主; 1541 – 1544), personal name Ruirong (瑞嬫)
  17. Consort Hui, of the Wang clan (徽妃 王氏)
    1. Princess Sirou (思柔公主; 1538 – 1549), personal name Fuyuan (福媛)
  18. Consort Rong, of the Zhao clan (榮妃 趙氏)
    1. Zhu Zai?, Prince Junsi (均思王 朱載土夙缺字.svg; 1539 – 1540)
  19. Consort Rongzhaode, of the Zhang clan (榮昭德妃 張氏; d. 1574)
    1. Princess Jiashan (嘉善公主; 1541 – 1564), personal name Suzhen (素嫃)
  20. Consort Rong'anzhen, of the Ma clan (榮安貞妃 馬氏; d. 1564)
  21. Consort Duanjingshu, of the Zhang clan (端靜淑妃 張氏)
  22. Consort Gongxili, of the Wang clan (恭僖麗妃 王氏; d. 1553)
  23. Consort Gongshurong, of the Yang clan (恭淑榮妃 楊氏; d. 1566)
  24. Consort Duanhuiyong, of the Xu clan (端惠永妃 徐氏)

See also

References

  1. ^ Eric N. Danielson, "The Ming Ancestor Tomb"
  2. ^ "Invasion of the Great Green Algae Monster Archived 2009-06-28 at the Wayback Machine.. Salon. 25 Jun 2007.
  3. ^ 一本书读懂大明史
  4. ^ "China > History > The Ming dynasty > Political history > The dynastic succession", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2007
  5. ^ "Beijing." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007.
  6. ^ 端妃曹氏与嘉靖宫变
  7. ^ 明廷“壬寅宫变”之谜
  8. ^ 萬曆野獲編, vol.18
  9. ^ Zhang Tingyu, ed. (1739). "《明史》卷一百十四 列傳第二 后妃二" [History of Ming, Volume 114, Historical Biography 2, Empresses and Concubines 2]. Lishichunqiu Net (in Chinese). Lishi Chunqiu. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  10. ^ History Office, ed. (1620s). 明實錄:明世宗實錄 [Veritable Records of the Ming: Veritable Records of Shizong of Ming] (in Chinese). 406. Ctext.
  • The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part I, "The Prince of Ning Treason" by Frederick W. Mote and Denis Twitchett.

Huiping Pang, "The Confiscating Henchmen: The Masquerade of Ming Embroidered-Uniform Guard Liu Shouyou (ca. 1540-1604)," Ming Studies 72 (2015): 24-45. ISSN 0147-037X


Jiajing Emperor
Born: 16 September 1507 Died: 23 January 1567
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Zhengde Emperor
Emperor of China
1521–1567
Succeeded by
The Longqing Emperor