Koláček studied at German gymnasium in Brno (finished in 1868), then at technical universities in Prague and Vienna. At the Charles University in Prague, under guidance of Ernst Mach, he obtained doctoral decree in 1877. Worked as teacher at gymnasium in Brno (1 year) and then in Prague (18 years). Only in 1891 he was named professor of mathematical physics at Charles university. During 1900 - 1902 worked as professor at university in Brno but then returned to Prague.
Koláček worked in fields of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, optics and electromagnetic theory of light. He was the first one to describe electromagnetic theory of light dispersion.
- Příruční slovník naučný 1962 (encyclopedia by Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences): volume II, page 529.