Eurosphere

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Cited Eurosphere:

The Eurosphere or the European Empire[1] is a concept associated with the public intellectual Mark Leonard,[2] Oxford University academic Jan Zielonka,[1] the European Union Director-General for Politico-Military Affairs Robert Cooper;[3] and the European Commission President José Manuel Barroso.[4]

Over the past 50 years, the European Union has expanded from the 6 founding members to 28; additionally there are 8 candidate and potential candidate countries waiting to join. A number of Western European countries are integrated economically, as part of the Union's single market or using its single currency, the Euro. Through its High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the EU has the capability to speak with one voice on the world stage and has established association and free trade agreements with a large number of states. Furthermore, through the European Neighbourhood Policy and Union for the Mediterranean it is creating closer ties with countries on its borders; while developing ties with other former European colonies, the ACP countries.

Countries seeking membership in the EU undergo a great deal of reform, for example the huge reforms seen in Turkey such as the abolition of capital punishment.[5] The emergence of the Union's influence, and the draw of membership, has been the subject of a number of academic writings. Mark Leonard describes the area of EU influence as the "Eurosphere".

Countries within the Eurosphere

According to Mark Leonard, the Eurosphere includes 109 countries. In Europe, this includes the 28 member states of the EU, applicant countries wishing to join the EU, the Western Balkans, and European Commonwealth of Independent States countries (including Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, and transcontinental Kazakhstan). Curiously he does not mention Western European countries such as Norway who are already integrated into the EU's single market. Outside Europe, he lists every African country and every Middle Eastern country, as well as the countries forming the eastern border of the Eurosphere such as Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia, and Central Asia.[6]

Other countries that could be said to be within the Eurosphere might include European countries belonging to the European Economic Area such as Iceland or Liechtenstein, states using the euro as their currency such as San Marino and Monaco, or the Union's overseas territories such as Aruba, Bermuda, or Greenland as well as the EU's outermost regions in the Caribbean, South Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern Oceans such as Saint Martin, Martinique, or La Réunion. The above mentioned groups all have strong economic and political links with the EU today.

Quotes

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Zielonka, J. (2006), Europe as Empire, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
  2. ^ Leonard, M. (2005), Why Europe will run the 21st century, Fourth Estate: London.
  3. ^ Cooper, R. (2003), The Breaking of Nations, Atlantic Books: London.
  4. ^ http://www.globalpowereurope.eu/2007/07/birth-of-new-rome.html
  5. ^ EU-Turkey relations Archived July 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. euractiv.com
  6. ^ Leonard, M. Why Europe will run the 21st century (2004, Fourth Estate). Appendix: p.145-146.

Further reading

  • Ankerl, Guy (2000). Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.

External links